Grade 5 Math Curriculum

Family-facing version of the grade 5 math curriculum

Quarterly Overview of Grade 5 Mathematics

The objectives and outcomes for each unit are common across FCPS and based on the Virginia Standards of Learning. The pacing by quarter and by week provides an example of how the curriculum can be organized throughout the year. Teacher teams may adjust the pacing or order of units to best meet the needs of students.

Units and Details

Unit 1: Characteristics of Numbers

Students will:

  • Identify and describe the characteristics of prime and composite numbers.
  • Identify and describe the characteristics of even and odd numbers.

Unit 2: Decimal and Fraction Number Sense

Students will:

  • Given a decimal through thousandths, round to the nearest whole number, tenth, or hundredth.
  • Represent and identify equivalencies among fractions and decimals, with and without models.
  • Compare and order fractions, mixed numbers, and/or decimals, in a given set, from least to greatest and greatest to least. 

Unit 3: Whole Number Computation

Students will: 

  • Create and solve single-step and multistep practical problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers.
  • Simplify whole number numerical expressions, using the order of operations.

Unit 4: Decimal Computation

Students will:

  • Estimate and determine the product and quotient of two numbers involving decimals.
  • Create and solve single-step and multistep practical problems involving addition, subtraction, and multiplication of decimals, and create and solve single-step practical problems involving division of decimals.

Unit 5: Fraction Computation

Students will: 

  • Solve single-step and multistep practical problems involving addition and subtraction with fractions and mixed numbers.
  • Solve single-step practical problems involving multiplication of a whole number, limited to 12 or less, and a proper fraction, with models.

Unit 6: Algebraic Reasoning

Students will: 

  • Identify, describe, create, express, and extend number patterns found in objects, pictures, numbers, and tables.
  • Investigate and describe the concept of variables.
  • Write an equation to represent a given mathematical relationship, using a variable.
  • Use an expression with a variable to represent a given verbal expression involving one operation.
  • Create a problem situation based on a given equation, using a single variable and one operation.

Unit 7: Measurement

Students will: 

  • Solve practical problems that involve perimeter, area, and volume in standard units of measure.
  • Differentiate among perimeter, area, and volume and identify whether the application of the concept of perimeter, area, or volume is appropriate for a given situation.
  • Given the equivalent measure of one unit, identify equivalent measurements within the metric system.
  • Solve practical problems involving length, mass, and liquid volume using metric units.
  • Solve practical problems related to elapsed time in hours and minutes within a 24-hour period.

Unit 8: Geometry

Students will: 

  • Identify and describe the diameter, radius, chord, and circumference of a circle.
  • Classify and measure right, acute, obtuse, and straight angles.
  • Classify triangles as right, acute, obtuse, equilateral, scalene, or isosceles.
  • Investigate the sum of the interior angles in a triangle and determine an unknown angle measure.
  • Recognize and apply transformations, such as translation, reflection, and rotation.

Unit 9: Data and Probability

Students will: 

  • Determine the probability of an outcome by constructing a sample space or using the
  • Fundamental (Basic) Counting Principle.
  • Represent data in line plots and stem-and-leaf plots.
  • Interpret data represented in line plots and stem-and-leaf plots.
  • Compare data represented in a line plot with the same data represented in a stem-and-leaf plot.
  • Describe mean, median, and mode as measures of center.
  • Describe mean as fair share.
  • Describe the range of a set of data as a measure of spread.
  • Determine the mean, median, mode, and range of a set of data. 

Unit 10: Moving Forward and Digging Deeper

In this unit, teachers will provide differentiated opportunities for students to review previous content and explore content at a deeper level.

Virginia Department of Education Resources


Student assessments are part of the teaching and learning process.

  • Teachers give assessments to students on an ongoing basis to
    • Check for understanding 
    • Gather information about students' knowledge or skills.
  • Assessments provide information about a child's development of knowledge and skills that can help families and teachers better plan for the next steps in instruction.

For testing questions or additional information about how schools and teachers use test results to support student success, families can contact their children's schools.

In Fairfax County Public Schools (FCPS), fifth grade tests focus on measuring content knowledge and skill development.

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