# Grade 6 AAP Level IV Essential Standards

## School Year 2020-21

For the FCPS Return to School in 2020-21, the standards listed below emphasize the central priorities for learning in each course. These standards are intended to guide instruction and assessment during this extraordinary school year.

## Quarter 1 (September 8 – October 30)

### Language Arts

#### Interdisciplinary Unit (8 weeks)

• Identify a concept or “Big Idea” that supports interdisciplinary connections., e.g change, systems, relationships.
• Lead and contribute to discussions with others across content areas and in seminars.
• Analyze fiction, poetry, and nonfiction texts.
• Use a variety of strategies including determining importance, making inferences, drawing conclusions, and considering multiple perspectives.
• Analyze literature through the lens of a concept.
• Use technology, including the internet, to gather information from authoritative print and digital sources.
• Assess the strengths and limitations of sources in terms of organization, language, format, purpose, and audience.

#### The Rational Number System (4 weeks)

• Compare and order rational numbers (non-calculator skill).
• Solve practical problems involving operations with rational numbers.

#### Proportions and Linear Relationships (4 weeks)

• Solve single-step and multistep practical problems, using proportional reasoning.

### Science

#### Astronomy (5 weeks)

• Demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by:
• Developing and using models
• Interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data
• Investigate and understand that:
• The solar system is organized and the various bodies in the solar system interact
• Planets have different sizes and orbit at different distances from the sun
• There is a relationship between the sun, Earth, and the moon
• The rotation of Earth in relationship to the sun causes day and night
• The movement of Earth and the moon in relationship to the sun causes phases of the moon
• Matter is distributed throughout the solar system
• Planets have different sizes and orbit at different distances from the sun
• Earth’s tilt as it revolves around the sun causes the seasons
• AAP Level IV Extended Standards:
• Understand Earth’s patterns, cycles, changes, and Earth and Space Systems.
• Describe the patterns, cycles, and changes that emerge as a result of the positions of the Earth, moon, and the sun
• Analyze the strengths and limitations of models
• Demonstrate how given systems interact with each other
• Understand the various elements within a system and evaluate the interdependence of each element within the system
• Evaluate historical scientific discoveries and their impact on modern day society

#### Astronomy (3 weeks)

• Demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by:
• Developing and using models
• Investigate and understand that:
• The solar system is organized and the various bodies in the solar system interact
• Matter is distributed throughout the solar system
• There is a relationship between the sun, Earth, and the moon
• The rotation of Earth in relationship to the sun causes day and night
• The movement of Earth and the moon in relationship to the sun causes phases of the moon
• Earth’s tilt as it revolves around the sun causes the seasons
• AAP Level IV Extended Standards:
• Understand the various elements within a system and evaluate the interdependence of each element within the system
• Evaluate historical scientific discoveries and their impact on modern day society
• Earth’s tilt as it revolves around the sun causes the seasons

### Social Studies

#### Civics / Geography (2 weeks)

• Demonstrate responsible citizenship, both on and offline, and construct an understanding of the Student Rights and Responsibilities (including Digital Citizenship) by showing respect for rules and laws while collaborating, compromising, and participating in classroom activities.
• Understand the significance of Constitution Day and the establishment of a new American nation through the ideas of the United States Constitution.
• Locate continents, oceans, and key geographic features on maps, diagrams, photographs, etc. to evaluate their importance to the early history of the United States.
• AAP Level IV Extended Standards:
• Apply abstract concepts such as systems, patterns, relationships, and how things change over time to understand the impact of the past on the present
• Understand that change in our actions can have positive and/or negative effects on our community and government
• Analyze the patterns, systems, and relationships that exist within the structure of the US Government
• Develop a sense of responsibility for creating community

#### United States Geography (3 weeks)

• Locate, describe, and compare/contrast the distinct features of geographic regions of North America: Coastal Plain, Appalachian Mountains, Canadian Shield, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, Basin and Range, Coastal Range.
• Locate major water features and evaluate their importance to the early history of the United States.
• Locate where American Indians lived, focusing on Inuit (Arctic), Kwakiutl (Northwest), Lakota (Plains), Pueblo (Southwest), and Iroquois (Eastern Woodlands), making connections between past and present.
• AAP Level IV Extended Standards:
• Apply abstract concepts such as systems, cause and effect, and how things change over time to understand the impact of the past on the present
• Examine how geographic features impact historical events
• Use maps, globes, and other geographic tools (e.g. internet/GPS/etc.) to locate, describe, and compare various sites, land areas, places, and other geographic features

#### American Indians / European Exploration (3 weeks)

• Analyze and interpret American Indian artifacts as primary sources to learn about the lifestyles of ancient settlements, including Cactus Hill in Virginia.
• Describe how the environment and resources of early American Indian tribes impacted their daily life, making connections between past and present.
• Describe and analyze the motivations for, obstacles to, and land claims of the Spanish, French, Portuguese, and English explorations.
• Construct an understanding of the cultural and economic interactions between Europeans and American Indians to analyze what led to cooperation and conflict, with emphasis on the American Indian and European concept of land.
• AAP Level IV Extended Standards:
• Analyze historical issues using elements of reasoning
• Identify and describe how geography influenced early history and settlement in the U.S.
• Identify and describe how geography influenced the cultures of various American Indian groups

## Quarter 2 (November 2 – January 22)

### Language Arts

#### Interdisciplinary Unit (9 weeks)

• Use a variety of strategies including determining importance, making inferences, drawing conclusions, and considering multiple perspectives.
• Create generalizations about the story/text connected to concepts.
• Make inferences or provide evidence about the story from given data.
• Develop analytical and interpretive skills in fiction, poetry, and nonfiction texts.
• Analyze the author’s use of language, reasoning, and evidence in a text to construct power, position, and perspectives.
• Evaluate literary techniques, identifying fallacies in reasoning or distorted evidence.
• Complete various pieces of writing using a three-phrase revision process based on peer review, teacher feedback, and self-evaluation.
• Select a topic and develop a plan for writing for a variety of purposes and audiences.
• Conduct authentic research by applying skills of questions, information gathering, data analysis and synthesis.
• Focus, organize, and elaborate to create an effective message.
• Provide evidence and data to support a claim, issue, or thesis sentence.
• Develop linguistic competency.
• Analyze the form and function of words in each context.

#### Real Numbers and Exponents (2 weeks)

• Determine square roots of perfect squares (non-calculator skill).
• Identify and describe absolute value of rational numbers.

#### Expressions, Equations, and Inequalities (8 weeks)

• Evaluate algebraic expressions for given replacement values of the variable.
• Solve two-step linear equations in one variable, including practical problems that require the solution of a two-step linear equation in one variable.
• Solve one- and two-step linear inequalities in one variable, including practical problems, involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and graph the solution on a number line.

### Science

#### Patterns of Weather (9 weeks)

• Demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by:
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data
• Constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
• Investigate and understand that:
• Earth’s energy budget relates to living systems and Earth’s processes
• The atmosphere has physical characteristics
• Properties of the atmosphere change with altitude
• The atmosphere has physical characteristics
• There is a relationship between air movement, thermal energy, and weather conditions
• Atmospheric measures are used to predict weather conditions
• There is a relationship between air movement, thermal energy, and weather conditions
• Atmospheric measures are used to predict weather conditions
• Weather maps give basic information about fronts, systems, and weather measurements
##### AAP Level IV Extended Standards
• Demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by:
• Design, perform, and report on the results of investigations and experiments.
• Evaluate the credibility and accuracy of data and data sources and note any discrepancies among the data.
• Provide evidence and data to support a claim, issue, or thesis statement.
• Develop reasoning skills with application to science.
• Investigate and understand:
• Predict the impact of multiple solutions on a given problem within each system.
• Understand the various elements within a system and evaluate the interdependence of each element within a system.
• Explain energy efficiency and its role in conservation.
• Understand energy transformations within a system.
• Recognize and describe how natural events and human actions can cause changes in Earth’s atmosphere.

### Social Studies

#### West African Empires (3 weeks)

• Describe the characteristics of West African Societies (Ghana, Mali, and Songhai) and evaluate their role in the European exploration of North America.
• Identify the religious and economic conditions that led to the colonization of America.

#### Colonial America (3 weeks)

• Determine the economic relationships between the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies as a result of their geographical location.
• Describe specialization of and interdependence among New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies.
• Interpret, compare, and contrast the multiple perspectives of people whose lives varied greatly within the American colonies: farmers, artisans, merchants, women, free African Americans, enslaved African Americans, indentured servants, and large landowners.

#### American Revolution (3 weeks)

• Understand and make connections between the issues of dissatisfaction that led to the American Revolution and the political and economic relationships between the colonies and Great Britain.
• Describe and analyze how political ideas shaped the revolutionary movement in America and led to the Declaration of Independence.
• Evaluate people and events that played a role in shaping the revolutionary movement in America.
• Evaluate the reasons why the colonies were able to defeat Great Britain.

#### AAP Level IV Extended Standards

• Analyze historical situations for cause and effect relationships.
• Recognize and explain that the events of history are not inevitable, but are related to chains of cause and effect relationships.
• Recognize the importance of multiple perspectives in historical events.
• Understand and appreciate the influence of individual experiences, societal values, and traditions on historical perspectives.
• Analyze historical issues using elements of reasoning (purpose, point of view, implications/consequences, evidence/data, inferences, concepts/ideas, assumptions).
• Apply abstract concepts such as systems, cause and effect, and how things change over time to understand the impact of the past on the present.

## Quarter 3 (January 25 – March 26)

### Language Arts

#### Interdisciplinary Level IV Unit (9 weeks)

• Develop analytical and interpretive skills in fiction, poetry, and nonfiction texts.
• Identify and analyze poetic devices as appropriate.
• Identify a concept or “Big Idea” that supports interdisciplinary connections e.g., change, systems, patterns, relationships, etc.
• Develop reasoning skills in the language arts.
• Assess the strengths and limitations of sources in terms of organization, language, format, purposes, and audience.
• Cite evidence from the text to support how the style and content of a text enhances or detracts from the author’s message.
• Evaluate the choices the author makes to construct power, position, and perspective.
• Use technology, including the Internet, to gather information from authoritative print and digital sources.
• Select a topic and develop a plan for writing for a variety of purposes and audiences.
• Complete various pieces of writing using a three-phrase revision process based on peer review, teacher feedback, and self-evaluation.
• Synthesize author techniques to improve or create a new piece of writing.
• Conduct authentic research by applying skills of questions, information gathering, data analysis and synthesis.
• Develop linguistic competency.
• Analyze the form and function of words in each context.

#### Introduction to Functions (6 weeks)

• Determine the slope, m, as rate of change in a proportional relationship between two quantities and write an equation in the form y = mx to represent the relationship.
• Graph a line representing a proportional relationship between two quantities given the slope and an ordered pair, or given the equation in y =mx form where m represents the slope as rate of change.
• Determine the y-intercept, b, in an additive relationship between two quantities and write an equation in the form y = x + b to represent the relationship.
• Graph a line representing an additive relationship between two quantities given the y-intercept and an ordered pair, or given the equation in the form y = x + b, where b represents the y-intercept.
• Make connections between and among representations of a proportional or additive relationship between two quantities using verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs.

#### Triangles and Quadrilaterals (3 weeks)

• Solve problems, including practical problems, involving the relationship between corresponding sides and corresponding angles of similar quadrilaterals and triangles.

### Science

#### Interdisciplinary Unit (9 weeks)

• Demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by:
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data
• Constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations
• Developing and using models
• Investigate and understand that:
• Water is referred to as the universal solvent
• Water has a role in weathering
• Atoms consist of particles, including electrons, protons, and neutrons
• Compounds may be represented by chemical formulas
• A few elements comprise the largest portion of the solid Earth, living matter, the oceans, and the atmosphere
• Water has unique physical properties and that has a role in the natural and human-made environment
• Water has specific properties

#### AAP Level IV Extended Standards

• Demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices:
• Design, perform, and report on the results of investigations and experiments.
• Develop and use models or an abstract representation to describe a scientific principle or design solution.
• Evaluate the credibility and accuracy of data and data sources and note any discrepancies among the data.
• Provide evidence and data to support a claim, issue, or thesis statement.
• Transfer knowledge to make predictions about similar problems.
• Investigate and understand:
• Describe how water influences climate and weather.
• Analyze the concept of systems by applying cause and effect relationships to other systems.
• Identify and explain parts of an atom and recognize that atoms can bond (interact).
• Explain the relationship between the placement of elements on the periodic table.

### Social Studies

#### Interdisciplinary Unit (3 weeks)

• Explain the outcomes of the first Constitution of the United States established by the Articles of the Confederation.
• Describe the historical development of the Constitution of the United States.

#### Interdisciplinary Unit (3 weeks)

• Evaluate territorial expansion and how geographic and economic factors influenced the westward movement of settlers.
• Analyze the cause and effect relationships of westward expansion and its impact on American Indians.

#### Interdisciplinary Unit (3 weeks)

• Demonstrate critical thinking by using evidence to show the impact of inventions (cotton gin, reaper, steamboat, steam locomotive) on life in America.
• Evaluate the motivations and actions within the Abolitionist and Women's Suffrage movements.

#### AAP Level IV Extended Standards:

• Analyze historical issues using elements of reasoning (purpose, point of view, implications/consequences, evidence/data, inferences, concepts/ideas, assumptions).
• Analyze a document to define problems, arguments, assumptions, and expected outcomes.
• Describe the creation and evolution of the U.S. Constitution and its impact on our structure of government.
• Analyze the patterns, systems, and relationships that exist within the structure of the US Government.
• Define the context in which a primary source was produced, as well as the implications of context for understanding the document.
• Explain how movements contribute to social and legal change.
• Understand the concept of systems and how it applies to structure and the interdependence of the U.S. government (legislative, executive, and judicial branches).

## Quarter 4 (April 5 – June 11)

### Language Arts

#### Interdisciplinary Level IV Unit (10 weeks)

• Conduct authentic research by applying skills of questions, information gathering, data analysis and synthesis.
• Develop analytical and interpretive skills while applying research skills.
• Evaluate the choices the author makes to construct power, position, and perspective.
• Use a variety of strategies including: determining importance, making inferences, drawing conclusions and considering multiple perspectives.
• Identify a concept or “Big Idea” that supports interdisciplinary connections e.g., change, systems, patterns, relationships, etc.
• Assess the strengths and limitations of sources in terms of organization, language, format, purposes, and audience.
• Combine information from a variety of sources.
• Understand the necessity for multiple and varied resources in research.
• Provide evidence and data to support a claim, issue, or thesis sentence.
• Use technology, including the internet, to gather information from authoritative print and digital sources.
• Develop linguistic competency.
• Analyze the form and function of words in each context.

#### Probability of Random Events (2 weeks)

• Determine the theoretical and experimental probabilities of an event.
• Investigate and describe the difference between the experimental probability and theoretical probability of an event.

#### Data Distributions (3 weeks)

• Given data in a practical situation, represent data in a histogram.
• Given data in a practical situation, make observations and inferences about data represented in a histogram.

#### Surface Area and Volume (3 weeks)

• Describe and determine the volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders.
• Solve problems, including practical problems, involving the volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders.

#### Ensuring Mastery of Essential Standards (2 weeks)

For the final two weeks of school, students will have differentiated opportunities to continue to show mastery of year-long essential standards.

### Science

#### Interdisciplinary Unit (10 weeks)

• Demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by:
• Asking questions and defining problems
• Constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations
• Developing and using models
• Interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
• Investigate and understand that:
• Energy transformations are important in energy usage
• The sun is important in the formation of most energy sources on Earth
• Natural resources are important to protect and maintain
• Preventive measures can protect land-use and reduce environmental hazards
• There are cost/benefit tradeoffs in conservation policies

#### Level IV Extended Standards: (10 weeks)

• Identify a concept or “Big Idea” that supports interdisciplinary connections e.g. change, systems, patterns, relationships, etc. to analyze real-world problems.
• Design, perform, and report on the results of experiments related to a given problem.
• Provide evidence and data to support a claim, issue, or thesis statement.
• Transfer knowledge to make predictions about similar problems.
• Develop reasoning skills with application to science.
• Predict the impact of multiple solutions on a given problem within each system.
• Understand energy transformations within a system.
• Understand the various elements within a system and evaluate the interdependence of each element within a system.
• Describe strategies that will ensure sufficient and affordable energy.

### Social Studies

#### Interdisciplinary Unit (10 weeks)

• Use a critical lens to evaluate and analyze how the cultural, economic, and constitutional issues increased sectional tensions between the North and South.
• Analyze why the Southern states seceded from the Union.
• Use a critical lens to analyze how geography and climate impacted which states seceded from the Union and those that remained in the Union.
• Evaluate the impact of the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Frederick Douglass, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, in the events leading to and during the war.
• Understand major war events chronologically and describe their significance.
• Evaluate and interpret the effects of war from the perspectives of Union and Confederate soldiers (including African American soldiers), women, and enslaved African Americans, and Indigenous people.
• Identify acts of resistance and moral courage that resulted in the emancipation of African Americans.

#### AAP Level IV Extended Standards: (10 weeks)

• Understand the Civil War period with an emphasis on political, economic, and social systems.
• Analyze the economic and philosophical differences that existed in the North and the South prior to the Civil War.
• Analyze and interpret primary documents from the Civil War period.
• Examine how geographic features impact historical events.
• Use maps to explain critical developments in U.S. history including the Civil War.
• Describe causes, effects, and results of the Civil War from multiple perspectives.
• Analyze the causes and circumstances surrounding the growing hostility between the Northern and Southern states.
• Analyze historical situations for cause and effect relationships.