# Grade 6 Essential Standards

## School Year 2020-21

For the FCPS Return to School in 2020-21, the standards listed below emphasize the central priorities for learning in each course. These standards are intended to guide instruction and assessment during this extraordinary school year.

## Quarter 1 (September 8 – October 30)

### Language Arts

#### Becoming a Community of Readers and Writers (5 weeks)

• Use what they know about themselves to make decisions about how they work independently during the workshop.
• Use flexible thinking during discussion to uncover layers of meaning.
• Match their choice of genre and form with the purpose of their writing.
• Recognize the impact their piece has on the audience.

#### Fiction (7 weeks)

• Evaluate character development against their own experiences to create new understandings about life lessons.
• Recognize and compare multiple points of view and cite evidence to substantiate ideas through discussion or writing.
• Analyze the choices writers and illustrators make to construct power, position, and perspectives.
• Develop conflict by placing true-to-life characters into a historical context.
• Use elaboration techniques (dialogue, character & setting description) to reveal the historical time period.
• Bring out personal or historical conflicts to reveal recurring themes.
• Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.

### Mathematics

#### Ratios (Fractions, Decimals, and Percents) (6 weeks)

• Represent relationships between quantities using ratios, and use appropriate notations, such as a/b , a to b, and a:b.
• Represent and determine equivalencies among fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, and percents.

#### Fractions and Decimals (7 weeks)

• Multiply and divide fractions and mixed numbers.
• Solve single-step and multistep practical problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of fractions and mixed numbers.
• Solve multistep practical problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of decimals.

### Advanced Math

#### The Rational Number System (4 weeks)

• Compare and order rational numbers (non-calculator skill).
• Solve practical problems involving operations with rational numbers

#### Proportions and Linear Relationships  (4 weeks)

• Solve single-step and multistep practical problems, using proportional reasoning.

### Science

#### Astronomy (2 weeks)

Demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by:

• Developing and using models
• Investigate and understand that:
• The solar system is organized and the various bodies in the solar system interact
• Matter is distributed throughout the solar system
• Planets have different sizes and orbit at different distances from the sun

#### Astronomy (3 weeks)

Demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by:

• Developing and using models
• Interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data
• Investigate and understand that:
• The solar system is organized and the various bodies in the solar system interact
• Planets have different sizes and orbit at different distances from the sun
• There is a relationship between the sun, Earth, and the moon
• The rotation of Earth in relationship to the sun causes day and night
• The movement of Earth and the moon in relationship to the sun causes phases of the moon
• Earth’s tilt as it revolves around the sun causes the seasons

Astronomy (3 weeks)

Demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by:

• Developing and using models
• Investigate and understand that:
• The solar system is organized and the various bodies in the solar system interact
• Matter is distributed throughout the solar system
• There is a relationship between the sun, Earth, and the moon
• The rotation of Earth in relationship to the sun causes day and night
• The movement of Earth and the moon in relationship to the sun causes phases of the moon
• Earth’s tilt as it revolves around the sun causes the seasons

### Social Studies

#### Civics / Geography (2 weeks)

• Demonstrate responsible citizenship, both on and offline, and construct an understanding of the Student Rights and Responsibilities (including Digital Citizenship) by showing respect for rules and laws while collaborating, compromising, and participating in classroom activities.
• Understand the significance of Constitution Day and the establishment of a new American nation through the ideas of the United States Constitution.
• Locate continents, oceans, and key geographic features on maps, diagrams, photographs, etc. to evaluate their importance to the early history of the United States.

#### United States Geography (3 weeks)

• Locate, describe, and compare/contrast the distinct features of geographic regions of North America: Coastal Plain, Appalachian Mountains, Canadian Shield, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, Basin and Range, Coastal Range.
• Locate major water features and evaluate their importance to the early history of the United States.
• Locate where American Indians lived, focusing on Inuit (Arctic), Kwakiutl (Northwest), Lakota (Plains), Pueblo (Southwest), and Iroquois (Eastern Woodlands), making connections between past and present.

#### American Indians / European Exploration (3 weeks)

• Analyze and interpret American Indian artifacts as primary sources to learn about the lifestyles of ancient settlements, including Cactus Hill in Virginia.
• Describe how the environment and resources of early American Indian tribes impacted their daily life, making connections between past and present.
• Describe and analyze the motivations for, obstacles to, and land claims of the Spanish, French, Portuguese, and English explorations.
• Construct an understanding of the cultural and economic interactions between Europeans and American Indians to analyze what led to cooperation and conflict, with emphasis on the American Indian and European concept of land.

## Quarter 2 (November 2 – January 22)

### Language Arts

#### Stories: Fiction (7 weeks)

• Evaluate character development against their own experiences to create new understandings about life lessons.
• Recognize and compare multiple points of view and cite evidence to substantiate them through discussion or writing.
• Analyze the choices the writer/illustrator makes to construct power, position, and perspectives.
• Analyze the significant moments in their lives for larger lessons and ideas.
• Use a combination of narrative and expository writing techniques to develop their messages in memoir writing.
• Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.

#### Nonfiction (6 weeks)

• Evaluate how the literary techniques impact their interpretations of the text.
• Consider the perspectives of others to broaden their own thinking through discussion.
• Take a critical stance while reading, analyzing the author’s explicit and implicit beliefs and comparing them against their own.
• Use literary or narrative techniques to enhance information and develop their message.
• Writers focus their nonfiction writing on a small part of a larger topic to communicate their personal interests and passion.
• Use roots and affixes to expand vocabulary.
• Identify word origins and derivations.

### Mathematics

#### Fractions and Decimals (7 weeks)

• Multiply and divide fractions and mixed numbers.
• Solve single-step and multistep practical problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of fractions and mixed numbers.
• Solve multistep practical problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of decimals.

#### Rational Numbers and Exponents (4 weeks)

• Compare and order positive rational numbers.
• Identify and represent integers.
• Compare and order integers.

#### Integer Operations (7 weeks)

• Add, subtract, multiply, and divide integers.
• Solve practical problems involving operations with integers.

### Advanced Math

#### Real Numbers and Exponents (2 weeks)

• Determine square roots of perfect squares (non-calculator skill).
• Identify and describe absolute value of rational numbers.

#### Expressions, Equations, and Inequalities (8 weeks)

• Evaluate algebraic expressions for given replacement values of the variable.
• Solve two-step linear equations in one variable, including practical problems that require the solution of a two-step linear equation in one variable.
• Solve one- and two-step linear inequalities in one variable, including practical problems, involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and graph the solution on a number line.

### Science

#### Patterns of Weather (9 weeks)

• Demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by:
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data
• Constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
• Investigate and understand that:
• Earth’s energy budget relates to living systems and Earth’s processes
• The atmosphere has physical characteristics
• Properties of the atmosphere change with altitude
• The atmosphere has physical characteristics
• There is a relationship between air movement, thermal energy, and weather conditions
• Atmospheric measures are used to predict weather conditions
• There is a relationship between air movement, thermal energy, and weather conditions
• Atmospheric measures are used to predict weather conditions
• Weather maps give basic information about fronts, systems, and weather measurements

### Social Studies

#### West African Empires (3 weeks)

• Describe the characteristics of West African Societies (Ghana, Mali, and Songhai) and evaluate their role in the European exploration of North America.
• Identify the religious and economic conditions that led to the colonization of America.

#### Colonial America (3 weeks)

• Determine the economic relationships between the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies as a result of their geographical location.
• Describe specialization of and interdependence among New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies.
• Interpret, compare, and contrast the multiple perspectives of people whose lives varied greatly within the American colonies: farmers, artisans, merchants, women, free African Americans, enslaved African Americans, indentured servants, and large landowners.

#### American Revolution (3 weeks)

• Understand and make connections between the issues of dissatisfaction that led to the American Revolution and the political and economic relationships between the colonies and Great Britain.
• Describe and analyze how political ideas shaped the revolutionary movement in America and led to the Declaration of Independence.
• Evaluate people and events that played a role in shaping the revolutionary movement in America.
• Evaluate the reasons why the colonies were able to defeat Great Britain.

## Quarter 3 (January 25 – March 26)

### Language Arts

#### Functional Texts (2 weeks)

• Incorporate all parts of functional texts to understand the author’s purpose and to locate and interpret information.
• Analyze text for implicit biases and become aware of personal biases.
• Apply conventions (punctuation, sentence structure) as they edit writing to strengthen the message.

#### Poetry (6 weeks)

• Respond to poetry through performance, art, and writing in order to express thoughts about a poem.
• Analyze the effects of poetic devices in a variety of poetic forms (rap, musicals, lyrics, novels written in verse) through multiple readings.
• Analyze the choices the poet makes to construct power, position, and perspectives.
• Deliberately choose poetic tools to reveal images, evoke feelings, and produce rhythm and sound.
• Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.

#### Research and Writing about Research (6 weeks)

• Engage in a process of inquiry to ask and seek answers to compelling questions.
• Synthesize information across multiple texts and experiences in order to construct emerging understandings.
• Collaborate and discuss to seek new ideas or clarify unresolved questions.
• Analyze the choices the writer makes to construct power, position, and perspectives.
• Identify word origins and derivations.

### Mathematics

#### Integer Operations (7 weeks)

• Add, subtract, multiply, and divide integers.
• Solve practical problems involving operations with integers.

**Students will learn about Coordinate Plane and Congruence during asynchronous instruction with provided digital resources**

#### Expressions, Equations, and Inequalities (6 weeks)

• Solve one-step linear equations in one variable, including practical problems that require the solution of a one-step linear equation in one variable.

**Students will learn about Circles and Geometric Measurement during asynchronous instruction with provided digital resources**

### Advanced Math

#### Introduction to Functions (6 weeks)

• Determine the slope, m, as rate of change in a proportional relationship between two quantities and write an equation in the form y = mx to represent the relationship.
• Graph a line representing a proportional relationship between two quantities given the slope and an ordered pair, or given the equation in y =mx form where m represents the slope as rate of change.
• Determine the y-intercept, b, in an additive relationship between two quantities and write an equation in the form y = x + b to represent the relationship.
• Graph a line representing an additive relationship between two quantities given the y-intercept and an ordered pair, or given the equation in the form y = x + b, where b represents the y-intercept.
• Make connections between and among representations of a proportional or additive relationship between two quantities using verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs.

#### Triangles and Quadrilaterals (3 weeks)

• Solve problems, including practical problems, involving the relationship between corresponding sides and corresponding angles of similar quadrilaterals and triangles.

### Science

#### H2O (9 weeks)

• Demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by:
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data
• Constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations
• Developing and using models
• Investigate and understand that:
• Water is referred to as the universal solvent
• Water has a role in weathering
• Atoms consist of particles, including electrons, protons, and neutrons
• Compounds may be represented by chemical formulas
• A few elements comprise the largest portion of the solid Earth, living matter, the oceans, and the atmosphere
• Water has unique physical properties and that has a role in the natural and human-made environment
• Water has specific properties

### Social Studies

#### New Nation (3 weeks)

• Explain the outcomes of the first Constitution of the United States established by the Articles of the Confederation.
• Describe the historical development of the Constitution of the United States.

#### Westward Expansion (3 weeks)

• Evaluate territorial expansion and how geographic and economic factors influenced the westward movement of settlers.
• Analyze the cause and effect relationships of westward expansion and its impact on American Indians.

#### Reform (3 weeks)

• Demonstrate critical thinking by using evidence to show the impact of inventions (cotton gin, reaper, steamboat, steam locomotive) on life in America.
• Evaluate the motivations and actions within the Abolitionist and Women's Suffrage movements.

## Quarter 4 (April 5 – June 11)

### Language Arts

#### Research and Writing About Research (6 weeks)

• Engage in a process of inquiry to ask and seek answers to compelling questions.
• Synthesize information across multiple texts and experiences in order to construct emerging understandings.
• Collaborate and discuss to seek new ideas or clarify unresolved questions.
• Analyze the choices the writer makes to construct power, position, and perspectives.
• Engage in a process of inquiry to ask and seek answers to compelling questions.
• Synthesize information across multiple texts and experiences in order to construct emerging understandings.
• Collaborate and discuss to seek new ideas or clarify unresolved questions.
• Use roots and affixes to expand vocabulary and spell new words.
• Identify word origins and derivations.

#### Independent Writing Project and Choice of Reading Unit (5 weeks)

• Reading goals and standards depend on the unit of choice.*
• Use self-selected mentor texts to support revision and editing.
• Decide what is needed to develop as writers and take steps to accomplish short and long-term goals.
• Seek out support from and contribute support to fellow writers.
• Word Study goals and standards depend on the unit of choice.*

*Please contact your child’s teacher to know which unit is being taught.

### Mathematics

#### Expressions, Equations, and Inequalities (6 weeks)

• Solve one-step linear equations in one variable, including practical problems that require the solution of a one-step linear equation in one variable.

**Students will learn about Circles and Geometric Measurement during asynchronous instruction with provided digital resources**

#### Proportions (5 weeks)

• Represent a proportional relationship between two quantities, including those arising from practical situations.
• Determine the unit rate of a proportional relationship and use it to find a missing value in a ratio table.
• Determine whether a proportional relationship exists between two quantities.

**Students will learn about Data Distributions during asynchronous instruction with provided digital resources**

#### Ensuring Mastery of Essential Standards (2 weeks)

For the final two weeks of school, students will have differentiated opportunities to continue to show mastery of year-long essential standards.

### Advanced Math

#### Probability of Random Events (2 weeks)

• Determine the theoretical and experimental probabilities of an event.
• Investigate and describe the difference between the experimental probability and theoretical probability of an event.

#### Data Distributions (3 weeks)

• Given data in a practical situation, represent data in a histogram.
• Given data in a practical situation, make observations and inferences about data represented in a histogram.

#### Surface Area and Volume (3 weeks)

• Describe and determine the volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders.
• Solve problems, including practical problems, involving the volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders.

#### Ensuring Mastery of Essential Standards (2 weeks)

For the final two weeks of school, students will have differentiated opportunities to continue to show mastery of year-long essential standards.

### Science

#### Energy and Its Uses (10 weeks)

• Demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by:
• Asking questions and defining problems
• Constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations
• Developing and using models
• Interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
• Investigate and understand that:
• Energy transformations are important in energy usage
• The sun is important in the formation of most energy sources on Earth
• Natural resources are important to protect and maintain
• Preventive measures can protect land-use and reduce environmental hazards
• There are cost/benefit tradeoffs in conservation policies

### Social Studies

#### Civil War - Secession (3 weeks)

• Use a critical lens to evaluate and analyze how the cultural, economic, and constitutional issues increased sectional tensions between the North and South.
• Analyze why the Southern states seceded from the Union.
• Use a critical lens to analyze how geography and climate impacted which states seceded from the Union and those that remained in the Union.

#### Civil War - Roles and Events (3 weeks)

• Evaluate the impact of the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Frederick Douglass, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, in the events leading to and during the war.
• Understand major war events chronologically and describe their significance.

#### Civil War - Perspectives and Impact (4 weeks)

• Evaluate and interpret the effects of war from the perspectives of Union and Confederate soldiers (including African American soldiers), women, and enslaved African Americans, and Indigenous people.
• Identify acts of resistance and moral courage that resulted in the emancipation of African Americans.