Virginia Pine

Pinus virginiana


Dr. Michael F. Gross, Georgian Court College

Virginia Pine are small to medium-sized pine trees, growing up to 60 feet. They have long, spreading branches and a trunk up to one and a half feet across.

Virginia Pine have reddish-brown bark. Needles are short, only one-and-a-half to three inches long. Flowers are small yellow cylinders at the end of a branch. Pine cones are small and oval-shaped, up to two-and-a-half inches long. Small seeds come from the cones.

Virginia Pine lay shallow roots and must have plenty of sun to survive. They eventually get pushed out by larger trees.

Trees of Alabama and the Southeast, Photographer: Mike Hogan


Trees of Alabama and the Southeast, Photographer: Mike Hogan

Virginia Pines are good pioneer plants, meaning they are some of the first trees to take over a field. They can be considered a shrub when they are young. They grow very fast.

Virginia Pine can be found growning with other trees, such as White Oak, Southern Red Oak, Red Maple, hickories, Sweetgum, Eastern White Pine, Eastern Redcedar, and Loblolly Pine.

Virginia Pine seeds are consumed by many birds and small mammals. These animals help spread the seeds by carrying them to new places. Twigs and needles are eaten by White-tailed Deer. Young Virginia Pines are good cover for animals, such as rabbits.

Meadow Voles can kill a small tree by eating bark and girdling (taking bark off all the way around the tree) it.

Virginia Pines are a favorite of woodpeckers, because of the soft wood in older trees.

Many species of fungi live symbiotically with this tree. The fungi grow on the roots of Virginia Pine. They absorb nutrients from the tree, and they allow other nutrients to be absorbed by the tree which it otherwise wouldn't get.

Relationships in Nature:

Animals Using as Food Source

Animals Using as Shelter

Associations With Other Plants


White-tailed Deer

Pileated Woodpecker

Eastern Redcedar

Honey Mushroom Pa

Wild Turkey

Eastern Cottontail

Red Maple

Turkey Tail Pa

Meadow Vole

Black Rat Snake


White-breasted Nuthatch D

Virginia Pine Sawfly

Barred Owl

Eastern White Pine

Wild Turkey D

Mourning Dove

Wild Turkey

Willow Oak

Red-bellied Woodpecker

Carolina Chickadee

Mourning Dove

Loblolly Pine

Eastern Chipmunk D

American Goldfinch

Virginia Pine Sawfly

Flowering Dogwood

Dark-eyed Junco D

White-breasted Nuthatch

Blue Jay

Bracken Fern

Virginia Pine Sawfly Pa

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

White-breasted Nuthatch

American Beech

Mourning Dove D

Dark-eyed Junco

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Highbush Blueberry

Tufted Titmouse D

Green Stinkbug

Dogday Harvestfly

American Holly

Death Cap My

Tufted Titmouse

Great Crested Flycatcher

Trumpet Creeper

Japanese Honeysuckle Pa

Dogwood Borer

White-tailed Deer

Poison Ivy

Bald Eagle C


Eastern Bluebird

White Oak

Dogwood Borer Pa

Eastern Cottontail

Green Stinkbug

Smooth Sumac

Emetic Russula My

Eastern Gray Squirrel

Northern Bobwhite

Wild Grape

Meadow Vole Pa

Eastern Chipmunk

Tufted Titmouse


Indian Pipe Pa

Dogday Harvestfly

Common Grackle

Cinnamon Fern

Eastern Subterranean Termite

Polyphemus Moth

Pink Lady's Slipper

Northern Bobwhite

American Robin

Bigtooth Aspen

Relationship to Humans:

Virginia Pine are widely used for pulpwood (to make paper). They are also used for lumber. Many people use Virginia Pine trees as a Christmas tree.


Pinus virginiana


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