Social Studies Curriculum
  VA/US History

The standards for Virginia and United States History include the historical development of American ideas and institutions from the Age of Exploration to the present. While focusing on political and economic history, students will gain a basic knowledge of American culture through a chronological survey of major issues, movements, people, and events in United States and Virginia history. Students should use historical and geographical analysis skills to explore in depth the events, people, and ideas that fostered our national identity and led to our country’s prominence in world affairs.

The study of history must emphasize the intellectual skills required for responsible citizenship. Students practice these skills as they extend their understanding of the essential knowledge defined by the standards for history and social science.

Last Updated: 08/17/12 10:25 AM
Standard 1

Benchmark 1.a
Use Primary & Secondary Sources to Understand Events & Life in the US
Indicator 1.a.1
Use primary & secondary sources to understand events & life in the US

Benchmark 1.b
Evaluate the Authenticity, Authority, and Credibility of Sources
Indicator 1.b.1
Evaluate the authenticity, authority, and credibility of sources

Benchmark 1.c
Formulate Historical Questions & Defend Findings Based on Inquiry
Indicator 1.c.1
Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry

Benchmark 1.d
Develop Perspectives of Time & Place Using Maps and Timelines
Indicator 1.d.1
Develop perspectives of time & place using maps and timelines

Benchmark 1.e
Communicate Findings Orally and in Essays or Comprehensive Papers
Indicator 1.e.1
Communicate findings orally and in essays or comprehensive papers

Benchmark 1.f
Develop Skills in Discussion, Debate & Persuasive Writing
Indicator 1.f.1
Develop skills in discussion, debate & persuasive writing

Benchmark 1.g
Apply Geographic Skills & Reference Sources - Understand Relationships
Indicator 1.g.1
Apply geographic skills & reference sources - understand relationships

Benchmark 1.h
Interpret Significance of Excerpts from Famous Speeches & Documents
Indicator 1.h.1
Interpret significance of excerpts from famous speeches & documents

Benchmark 1.i
Identify Costs, Benefits & Consequences of Specific Choices
Indicator 1.i.1
Identify costs, benefits & consequences of specific choices
Standard 2

Benchmark 2.a
Describe Reasons for European Exploration and Colonization
Indicator 2.a.1
Identify the advances that prompted European exploration
Indicator 2.a.2
Compare motives for European exploration & colonization
Indicator 2.a.3
Evaluate the course and consequences of the Columbian Exchange

Benchmark 2.b
Describe Interactions among Europeans, Africans & American Indians
Indicator 2.b.1
Explain Spanish interactions with the Aztecs, Incas and Pueblos
Indicator 2.b.2
Describe the labor systems in Spanish & Portuguese colonies
Indicator 2.b.3
Explain how explorations and settlements led to conflicts
Indicator 2.b.4
Explain the French exploration of Canada
Indicator 2.b.5
Explain how and why slavery was introduced to the New World

Benchmark 2.c
Describe the Characteristics of Early Exploration & Settlements
Indicator 2.c.1
Compare and contrast characteristics and motives of British settlement
Indicator 2.c.2
Describe the characteristics and motives for settlement in Virginia
Indicator 2.c.3
Analyze representative government in the British colonies
Standard 3

Benchmark 3.a
Assess the Impact of Geography & Origins of Settlers on Colonies
Indicator 3.a.1
Describe the economic development of New England
Indicator 3.a.2
Describe the economic development of the middle colonies
Indicator 3.a.3
Describe the economic development of Virginia & Southern colonies
Indicator 3.a.4
Explain private property & free enterprise as traits of colonial life
Indicator 3.a.5
Assess impact of geography on economic development in the colonies
Indicator 3.a.6
Explain mercantilism as a relationship between England & its colonies

Benchmark 3.b
Describe Social Developments and Social Change in British America
Indicator 3.b.1
Describe the religious groups in the colonies
Indicator 3.b.2
Describe social characteristics of New England & Mid-Atlantic colonies
Indicator 3.b.3
Describe social characteristics of Virginia & other Southern colonies
Indicator 3.b.4
Describe the "Great Awakening" and its impact
Indicator 3.b.5
Compare and contrast the social and religious traits of the colonies

Benchmark 3.c
Describe the Political Life in the British Colonies
Indicator 3.c.1
Describe the political life in the British colonies

Benchmark 3.d
Describe the Impact of Indentured Servitude and Slavery on Colonies
Indicator 3.d.1
Explain that agriculture in Southern colonies required cheap labor
Indicator 3.d.2
Explain that indentured servants met some labor needs in colonies
Indicator 3.d.3
Identify the changing status of Africans in the colonies
Indicator 3.d.4
Analyze the impact of Bacon's Rebellion
Indicator 3.d.5
Explain that slavery led to conflict between the North and the South
Standard 4

Benchmark 4.a
Analyze Ideas that Influenced & Shaped the Declaration of Independence
Indicator 4.a.1
Explain issues used to justify the Declaration of Independence
Indicator 4.a.2
Explain the Enlightenment period introduced ideas about government
Indicator 4.a.3
Assess influence & impact of Enlightenment philosophers on US beliefs
Indicator 4.a.4
Explain how "Common Sense" contributed to the calls for independence
Indicator 4.a.5
Assess how Declaration of Independence held ideas of Locke & Paine

Benchmark 4.b
Evaluate Key Principles in the Declaration of Independence as Unifiers
Indicator 4.b.1
Evaluate key principles in the Declaration of Independence as unifiers

Benchmark 4.c
Describe Political Differences Among Colonists About Independence
Indicator 4.c.1
Explain the Anglo-French rivalry that led to French & Indian War
Indicator 4.c.2
Explain the actions by England that led to the Revolutionary War
Indicator 4.c.3
Identify the Patriot, Loyalist and Neutral factions
Indicator 4.c.4
Examine arguments between the Patriots and Loyalists
Indicator 4.c.5
Reconstruct chronology of events that led to armed conflict

Benchmark 4.d
Analyze Reasons for Colonial Victory in the Revolutionary War
Indicator 4.d.1
Appraise George Washington's military and political leadership
Indicator 4.d.2
Analyze relationship between France and Americans in the Revolution
Indicator 4.d.3
Explain the role of support for the war in Great Britain
Indicator 4.d.4
Reconstruct chronology of military events that led to colonial victory
Indicator 4.d.5
Compare & contrast roles of different groups in the Revolutionary War
Standard 5

Benchmark 5.a
Explain Constitution Origins, Including the Articles of Confederation
Indicator 5.a.1
Explain the creation of the Articles of Confederation
Indicator 5.a.2
Assess the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Indicator 5.a.3
Assess the successes under the Articles of Confederation
Indicator 5.a.4
Determine the causes and effects of Shays' Rebellion
Indicator 5.a.5
Discuss the issues that led to the creation of the US Constitution

Benchmark 5.b
Identify the Major Compromises Made to Create the US Constitution
Indicator 5.b.1
Identify key issues & the resolutions in creating the US Constitution
Indicator 5.b.2
Assess the role of George Washington as Chairman of the Convention
Indicator 5.b.3
Assess the role of James Madison as "Father of the Constitution"

Benchmark 5.c
Examine Significance of Documents Used to Create the Bill of Rights
Indicator 5.c.1
Explain that George Mason wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights
Indicator 5.c.2
Explain that Thomas Jefferson wrote VA Statute for Religious Freedom
Indicator 5.c.3
Explain that Madison used VA documents to create the US Bill of Rights

Benchmark 5.d
Assess the Arguments of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists
Indicator 5.d.1
Explain the arguments of Federalists during ratification debates
Indicator 5.d.2
Explain the arguments of Anti-Federalists during ratification debates

Benchmark 5.e
Appraise John Marshall's Supreme Court Precedent-Setting Decisions
Indicator 5.e.1
Describe the cases that are the basis of Supreme Court powers
Standard 6

Benchmark 6.a
Explain the Formation of the 1st Opposition Political Party
Indicator 6.a.1
Explain the formation of the 1st opposition political party
Indicator 6.a.2
Describe the significance of the election of 1800
Indicator 6.a.3
Explain the beliefs of members of the Federalists political party
Indicator 6.a.4
Explain the beliefs of the Democratic-Republican political party

Benchmark 6.b
Identify Factors that Led to Territorial Expansion
Indicator 6.b.1
Describe foreign policy decisions of Washington, Adams & Jefferson
Indicator 6.b.2
Assess the impact of the Louisiana Purchase on territorial expansion
Indicator 6.b.3
Describe the causes and consequences of the War of 1812
Indicator 6.b.4
Identify the origins and provisions of the Monroe Doctrine
Indicator 6.b.5
Assess the impact of economic factors on territorial expansion
Indicator 6.b.6
Describe the resolution of the Oregon dispute with Great Britain
Indicator 6.b.7
Analyze the American belief in "Manifest Destiny"
Indicator 6.b.8
Assess the impact of westward migration on the American Indians
Indicator 6.b.9
Explain the Texas Revolution and the Mexican-American War

Benchmark 6.c
Examine the Reasons for Declaring War on Great Britain in 1812
Indicator 6.c.1
Examine the reasons for declaring war on Great Britain in 1812

Benchmark 6.d
Relate the Changing Character of American Political Life
Indicator 6.d.1
Relate the changing character of American Political life
Indicator 6.d.2
Explain Andrew Jackson's "Spoils System"
Indicator 6.d.3
Explain the replacement of the Federalists by Whigs & Know-Nothings

Benchmark 6.e
Describe the Issues that Divided the Nation
Indicator 6.e.1
Describe sectional tensions caused by competing economic interests
Indicator 6.e.2
Describe sectional tensions caused by westward expansion
Indicator 6.e.3
Describe sectional tensions caused by debates - nature of the Union
Indicator 6.e.4
Describe sectional tensions caused by the institution of slavery
Indicator 6.e.5
Describe the woman's suffrage movement
Indicator 6.e.6
Describe transcendentalism
Standard 7

Benchmark 7.a
Evaluate the Multiple Causes (Including Slavery) of the Civil War
Indicator 7.a.1
Evaluate the multiple causes (including slavery) of the Civil War

Benchmark 7.b
Identify the Major Events and Leaders of the Civil War Era
Indicator 7.b.1
Identify the major events of the Civil War
Indicator 7.b.2
Identify the major military and political leaders of the Civil War
Indicator 7.b.3
Identify military innovations and their impact

Benchmark 7.c
Analyze the Emancipation Proclamation & the Gettysburg Address
Indicator 7.c.1
Describe the provisions of the Emancipation Proclamation
Indicator 7.c.2
Analyze the significance of the Gettysburg Address

Benchmark 7.d
Examine Political & Economic Impact of the Civil War & Reconstruction
Indicator 7.d.1
Describe the political effects of the Civil War & Reconstruction
Indicator 7.d.2
Explain the clashes between Johnson and the Radical Republicans
Indicator 7.d.3
Identify the provisions of Civil War amendments to the Constitution
Indicator 7.d.4
Describe the impact of Reconstruction on African Americans
Indicator 7.d.5
Describe the economic impact of the war on the South
Indicator 7.d.6
Describe economic impact of the war on the North & Midwest
Indicator 7.d.7
Explain the Transcontinental Railroad intensified westward movement

Benchmark 7.e
Examine the Social Impact of the Civil War on Various Groups
Indicator 7.e.1
Describe the social impact of the Civil War on African Americans
Indicator 7.e.2
Describe the social impact of the Civil War on common soldiers
Indicator 7.e.3
Describe the social impact of the Civil War on women

Benchmark 7.f
Explain Post-War Contributions of Key Leaders of the Civil War
Indicator 7.f.1
Explain the post-war contributions of Ulysses S. Grant
Indicator 7.f.2
Explain the post-war contributions of Robert E. Lee
Indicator 7.f.3
Explain the post-war contributions of Frederick Douglass
Standard 8

Benchmark 8.a
Explain Link Between Westward Expansion & the Nation's Growth
Indicator 8.a.1
Explain link between westward expansion & the nation's growth
Indicator 8.a.2
Explain the era of the American cowboy
Indicator 8.a.3
Identify new technologies that helped westward expansion
Indicator 8.a.4
Identify attitudes and policies towards American Indians
Indicator 8.a.5
Compare and contrast "old immigrants" and "new immigrants"
Indicator 8.a.6
Explain that immigrants arrived from Europe and Asia
Indicator 8.a.7
Assess immigrants' contributions to America's growth
Indicator 8.a.8
Explain that despite contributions, immigrants faced hardship
Indicator 8.a.9
Evaluate the immigration policy of the United States
Indicator 8.a.10
Explain the industrial growth and resulting issues faced by cities

Benchmark 8.b
Describe the US Economy Moving from Agrarian to Industrial
Indicator 8.b.1
Explain that technological change spurred the growth of industry
Indicator 8.b.2
Identify inventions and innovations that fueled industrial growth
Indicator 8.b.3
Identify major industrial leaders and their impact on the economy
Indicator 8.b.4
Identify reasons for the move from an agrarian to industrial economy
Indicator 8.b.5
Describe the impact of immigration on labor issues
Indicator 8.b.6
Describe the impact of industrial production on distribution methods
Indicator 8.b.7
Describe the impact of industrialization on literature and the arts

Benchmark 8.c
Analyze Prejudice and Discrimination During this Time Period
Indicator 8.c.1
Analyze the institutionalization of segregation
Indicator 8.c.2
Explain that African Americans began the "Great Migration"
Indicator 8.c.3
Compare and contrast the response of African Americans

Benchmark 8.d
Identify the Impact of the Progressive Movement
Indicator 8.d.1
Identify causes of the Progressive Movement
Indicator 8.d.2
Identify attempts to expose corruption and inequality
Indicator 8.d.3
Analyze how unions differed in terms of reform agendas & organization
Indicator 8.d.4
Explain the response of management & government to labor strife
Indicator 8.d.5
Assess the gains of labor unions
Indicator 8.d.6
Explain the Progressive Movement used the govt to reform problems
Indicator 8.d.7
Explain the goals of the Progressive Movement
Indicator 8.d.8
Describe Progressive accomplishments regarding child labor
Indicator 8.d.9
Evaluate Progressive reforms to expand democracy at all levels
Indicator 8.d.10
Identify successful attempts at Progressive reform at federal levels
Indicator 8.d.11
Describe the women's suffrage movement
Indicator 8.d.12
Describe the 16th, 17th, 18th & 19th Amendments reflection of ideals
Standard 9

Benchmark 9.a
Explain Changing US Policies Towards Latin America and Asia
Indicator 9.a.1
Explain the growth in international trade from late 1800s to WWI
Indicator 9.a.2
Describe the "Open Door Policy" - creating int'l. markets for the US
Indicator 9.a.3
Describe "Dollar Diplomacy" - creating int'l. markets for the US
Indicator 9.a.4
Analyze causes and results of the Spanish-American War
Indicator 9.a.5
Describe the role of T. Roosevelt in building the Panama Canal
Indicator 9.a.6
Describe efforts to depose Hawaii's monarchy & annex Hawaii

Benchmark 9.b
Evaluate US Involvement in World War I and Resulting Issues
Indicator 9.b.1
Examine the causes of World War I
Indicator 9.b.2
Explain how the war began in Europe
Indicator 9.b.3
Examine shift in US policy from isolationism to military involvement
Indicator 9.b.4
Evaluate the key ideas of Wilson's Fourteen Point Plan
Indicator 9.b.5
Identify the consequences of the Treaty of Versailles
Indicator 9.b.6
Analyze the political, economic and social results of World War I
Standard 10

Benchmark 10.a
Analyze How the Media Created Popular Culture & Challenged Values
Indicator 10.a.1
Describe the role the media played in shaping popular culture & values
Indicator 10.a.2
Analyze how mass media challenged traditional values

Benchmark 10.b
Assess the Causes & Consequences of the Stock Market Crash of 1929
Indicator 10.b.1
Analyze the causes of the stock market crash of 1929
Indicator 10.b.2
Analyze the consequences of the stock market crash

Benchmark 10.c
Explain the Causes & Impact of the Great Depression
Indicator 10.c.1
Explain the causes of the Great Depression
Indicator 10.c.2
Analyze the impact of the Great Depression on the American people

Benchmark 10.d
Describe How FDR's New Deal Addressed Issues of the Great Depression
Indicator 10.d.1
Describe Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal
Indicator 10.d.2
Explain how the New Deal expanded govt's role in the economy

Benchmark 10.e
Examine Domestic Social Tensions & Results in the Postwar Era
Indicator 10.e.1
Assess government reactions to growth of radical political movements
Indicator 10.e.2
Examine rising racial and ethnic tensions
Indicator 10.e.3
Examine the rise of religious fundamentalism
Indicator 10.e.4
Analyze the economic and social consequences of Prohibition
Indicator 10.e.5
Analyze how the "New Woman" challenged Victorian values
Indicator 10.e.6
Examine contributors to the Harlem Renaissance & the Lost Generation
Indicator 10.e.7
Explain the global context of the Great Depression
Standard 11

Benchmark 11.a
Analyze Causes and Events that Led to US Involvement in WWII
Indicator 11.a.1
Analyze political & economic problems from the Treaty of Versailles
Indicator 11.a.2
Identify acts of aggression by totalitarian regimes that led to WWII
Indicator 11.a.3
Analyze why the US moved towards involvement in WWII

Benchmark 11.b
Describe Major Battles and Turning Points of World War II
Indicator 11.b.1
Identify the Allied powers and their major leaders
Indicator 11.b.2
Identify the Axis Powers and their major leaders
Indicator 11.b.3
Describe the Allied strategy
Indicator 11.b.4
Describe the Axis strategy
Indicator 11.b.5
Describe the Battle of El Alamein
Indicator 11.b.6
Describe the Battle and Siege of Stalingrad
Indicator 11.b.7
Describe the Normandy landings (D-Day)
Indicator 11.b.8
Describe the Battle of the Bulge
Indicator 11.b.9
Describe the Battle of Midway
Indicator 11.b.10
Describe the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa
Indicator 11.b.11
Analyze the use of the atomic bomb in Japan

Benchmark 11.c
Describe the Role of All-Minority Military Units
Indicator 11.c.1
Explain that African Americans usually served in segregated units
Indicator 11.c.2
Explain the role of the Tuskegee Airmen in Europe
Indicator 11.c.3
Explain the role of the Nisei regiments
Indicator 11.c.4
Identify additional contributions of minorities in World War II

Benchmark 11.d
Examine the Geneva Convention & Treatment of Prisoners of War
Indicator 11.d.1
Explain the Geneva Convention mandated humane treatment of POWs
Indicator 11.d.2
Describe the treatment of POWs in the Pacific Theater

Benchmark 11.e
Analyze the Holocaust and its Impact on Jews and Other Groups
Indicator 11.e.1
Define Genocide: Systematic & purposeful destruction of a group
Indicator 11.e.2
Define the phrase Final Solution: Effort to exterminate all Jews
Indicator 11.e.3
Identify groups affected by the Holocaust
Indicator 11.e.4
Analyze the significance of the Nuremburg trials
Indicator 11.e.5
Explain the arrests and trials of Japanese officials for atrocities
Standard 12

Benchmark 12.a
Explain How the US Mobilized Economic/Human/Military Resources
Indicator 12.a.1
Analyze the US mobilization of resources during World War II
Indicator 12.a.2
Describe how the US mobilized human & military resources in WWII

Benchmark 12.b
Describe the Contributions of Women and Minorities to the War Effort
Indicator 12.b.1
Describe the contributions of women to the war effort
Indicator 12.b.2
Describe the contributions of African Americans to the war effort

Benchmark 12.c
Explain the Internment of Japanese Americans during the War
Indicator 12.c.1
Identify reasons for the internment of Japanese Americans
Indicator 12.c.2
Describe the internment of Japanese Americans

Benchmark 12.d
Describe the Role of Media and Communications in the War Effort.
Indicator 12.d.1
Describe the role of media and communications in the war effort

Benchmark 12.e
Evaluate the Impact of World War II on Science and Technology
Indicator 12.e.1
Discuss changes in military technology during World War II
Indicator 12.e.2
Examine the impact of World War II on the field of medicine
Standard 13

Benchmark 13.a
Describe Outcomes of WWII - New Boundaries, UN & the Marshall Plan
Indicator 13.a.1
Explain that the USSR occupied Eastern & Central Europe & East Germany
Indicator 13.a.2
Describe the partitioning of Germany at the end of World War II
Indicator 13.a.3
Explain that Japan was occupied by American forces after World War II
Indicator 13.a.4
Explain that the Marshall Plan provided help to rebuild Europe
Indicator 13.a.5
Describe boundary changes at the end of World War II
Indicator 13.a.6
Explain that the UN was formed to prevent future global wars

Benchmark 13.b
Explain Cold War, Truman Doctrine, Korean & Vietnam Wars, NATO Role
Indicator 13.b.1
Explain Cold War duration - from end of WWII to Soviet Union collapse
Indicator 13.b.2
Describe the different values of the US and the USSR
Indicator 13.b.3
Describe the Truman Doctrine as a guiding US principle of the Cold War
Indicator 13.b.4
Describe the division of Europe after World War II
Indicator 13.b.5
Describe the impact of the communist takeover of China
Indicator 13.b.6
Describe the arms race and its impact on the Cold War
Indicator 13.b.7
Explain the causes, responses to, and results of the Korean War
Indicator 13.b.8
Explain the causes, responses & results of US involvement with Cuba
Indicator 13.b.9
Assess the impact of the Cold War at home
Indicator 13.b.10
Explain the causes, responses & results of US involvement in Vietnam
Indicator 13.b.11
Evaluate public perception of the executive branch

Benchmark 13.c
Explain Role of US Military & Veterans Defending Freedom in Cold War
Indicator 13.c.1
Identify famous excerpts from Kennedy's inaugural address
Indicator 13.c.2
Describe contributions of the military during the Cold War era
Indicator 13.c.3
Explain the impact of the assassination of Kennedy
Indicator 13.c.4
Compare the experiences of WWII and Vietnam veterans

Benchmark 13.d
Explain Collapse of Communism and the End of the Cold War
Indicator 13.d.1
Identify internal problems in the USSR that led to collapse
Indicator 13.d.2
Assess Reagan's role in the collapse of Soviet Union & end of Cold War

Benchmark 13.e
Explain the Impact of US Presidents since 1988 on Foreign Policy
Indicator 13.e.1
Identify selected post-Cold War era goals and policies
Indicator 13.e.2
Describe the impact of President George H.W. Bush - 1989-1993
Indicator 13.e.3
Describe the impact of President William J. Clinton - 1993-2001
Indicator 13.e.4
Describe the impact of President George W. Bush - 2001-2009

Benchmark 13.f
Trace Rise of US as Major Economic & Military Power in the Postwar Era
Indicator 13.f.1
Describe postwar economy and its effect on the American consumer
Indicator 13.f.2
Describe federal govt. provided economic opportunities for veterans
Indicator 13.f.3
Explain conservative reaction to liberalism & supply-side economics
Indicator 13.f.4
Analyze the economic implications of demographic changes
Standard 14

Benchmark 14.a
Identify Brown v. Topeka Board of Education
Indicator 14.a.1
Describe the significance of Brown v. Topeka Board of Education
Indicator 14.a.2
Identify key people in Brown v. Topeka Board of Education
Indicator 14.a.3
Evaluate Virginia's response to Brown v. Topeka Board of Education

Benchmark 14.b
Describe NAACP, March on Wash, & Civil Rights Act & Voting Rights Act
Indicator 14.b.1
Evaluate the impact of the 1963 March on Washington
Indicator 14.b.2
Describe the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Indicator 14.b.3
Assess the significance of the Voting Rights Act of 1965
Indicator 14.b.4
Explain that the NAACP challenged segregation in the courts
Indicator 14.b.5
Identify and compare key civil rights events and organizations
Indicator 14.b.6
Compare philosophies of key Civil Rights leaders
Indicator 14.b.7
Analyze the ideas in Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.' writings
Standard 15

Benchmark 15.a
Examine Role of US Supreme Court - Equal Rights, Rule of Law, Privacy
Indicator 15.a.1
Examine role of US Supreme Court - equal rights, rule of law, privacy

Benchmark 15.b
Analyze Changing Patterns of Immigration/Reasons to Come/Contributions
Indicator 15.b.1
Explain that new immigration to US has come from many areas
Indicator 15.b.2
Identify reasons for immigration to the US
Indicator 15.b.3
Identify issues related to immigration policy in the United States
Indicator 15.b.4
Describe the contributions of immigrants in the US
Indicator 15.b.5
Compare reasons for immigration to US now and in the past

Benchmark 15.c
Explain Influence & Effects of the Media and Technological Advances
Indicator 15.c.1
Describe the US space program
Indicator 15.c.2
Explain the increase in the global awareness of Americans
Indicator 15.c.3
Identify examples of technological advances in the US
Indicator 15.c.4
Identify changes brought on by technological advances in the US

Benchmark 15.d
Examine the Impact of the "Reagan Revolution"
Indicator 15.d.1
Identify the role of Reagan and conservative Republicans
Indicator 15.d.2
Assess the "Reagan Revolution" extending beyond his tenure in office

Benchmark 15.e
Assess the Role of Government Actions that Impact the Economy
Indicator 15.e.1
Assess the role of government actions that impact the economy

Benchmark 15.f
Assess the Role of the US in a World Confronted by Terrorism
Indicator 15.f.1
Assess the role of the US in a world confronted by terrorism

Benchmark 15.g
Examine Social, Political, & Economic Issues of the 21st Century
Indicator 15.g.1
Examine major social concerns in contemporary US in the 21st century
Indicator 15.g.2
Examine changes in the political landscape in the 21st century

Essential - Standard, benchmark, or indicator from the VDOE Standards of Learning document. In the absence of VDOE standards for a given course, content subject to testing such as AP and IB can be labeled Essential.
Expected - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies to provide a context, a bridge, or an enhancement to the Essential SBIs.
Extended - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies generally used to differentiate instruction for advanced learners (Honors/GT)