﻿ FCPS Program of Studies
Science Curriculum
Physics

Physics 1 introduces the central concepts of physics, including kinematics, dynamics, the conservation laws (mass, energy, and momentum), electricity and magnetism, and waves. This laboratory-centered course utilizes an approach that is inductive and mathematical as well as conceptual.

Last Updated: 08/17/12 10:34 AM

SCI.PH
Standard 1
PLAN AND CONDUCT INVESTIGATIONS USING EXPERIMENTAL & PRODUCT DESIGN

Benchmark 1.a
Define the Components of a System

 Indicator 1.a.1 Identify the components of a system

 Indicator 1.a.2 Differentiate between open and closed systems

Benchmark 1.b
Select and Use Instruments to Extend Observations and Measurements

 Indicator 1.b.1 Measure and record position, time, etc. using appropriate technology

 Indicator 1.b.2 Use lab equipment safely and appropriately

Benchmark 1.c
Record and Present Information in an Organized Format

 Indicator 1.c.1 Create graphs, charts, and tables to communicate experimental results

 Indicator 1.c.2 Formulate and implement a procedure for testing hypotheses

 Indicator 1.c.3 Synthesize various points of view from group members

 Indicator 1.c.4 Debate theories and ideas with peers in group discussions

 Indicator 1.c.5 Collaborate with peers to design presentations

Benchmark 1.d
Recognize the Limitations of the Experimental Apparatus and Design

 Indicator 1.d.1 Distinguish dependent & independent variables, constants, controls

 Indicator 1.d.2 Analyze experimental errors qualitatively (precision and accuracy)

 Indicator 1.d.3 Recognize that no measurement is complete without its uncertainty

 Indicator 1.d.4 Determine accuracy of measurement

 Indicator 1.d.5 Determine precision of measurement using range or standard deviation

 Indicator 1.d.6 Determine percent error in a calculated result from experimental data

 Indicator 1.d.7 Represent uncertainty in measurement as an error bar on a graph

Benchmark 1.e
Recognize the Limitations of Measured Quantities

 Indicator 1.e.1 Verify the results of calculations using order of magnitude estimates

 Indicator 1.e.2 Apply rules of significant figures in measurements and calculations

 Indicator 1.e.3 Minimize errors in measurement by averaging data from multiple trials

Benchmark 1.f
Understand the Uses of Models and Simulations

 Indicator 1.f.1 Use simulations to model physical phenomena

 Indicator 1.f.2 Manipulate simulation software to model scientific investigations

Benchmark 1.g
Use Technology To Gather & Analyze Data and Communicate Results

 Indicator 1.g.1 Generate and analyze a graph using a computer

 Indicator 1.g.2 Perform a lab that uses technology

 Indicator 1.g.3 Demonstrate proficiency using probeware for data collection, etc.

 Indicator 1.g.4 Discriminate computer-collected data by extracting useful data

 Indicator 1.g.5 Design presentations that employ current media technologies

SCI.PH
Standard 2
ANALYZE AND INTERPRET DATA

Benchmark 2.a
Translate a Physical Problem Into a Mathematical Statement

 Indicator 2.a.1 Use equations or inequalities to model physical phenomena or events

 Indicator 2.a.2 Use dimensional analysis in analyzing data and solving problems

 Indicator 2.a.3 Use dimensional analysis to verify appropriate units

 Indicator 2.a.4 Provide a mathematical rationale for a conclusion

Benchmark 2.b
Determine Relationships by Using the Shape of a Curve Through Data

 Indicator 2.b.1 Use graphical depictions to describe physical phenomena

 Indicator 2.b.2 Interpret and explain graphs to describe the motion of objects

 Indicator 2.b.3 Explain math relationships between quantities using graphical analysis

 Indicator 2.b.4 Develop a linear graph and function from non-linear data

Benchmark 2.c
Calculate the Slope of a Linear Relationship

 Indicator 2.c.1 Calculate the slope of a linear relationship with appropriate units

 Indicator 2.c.2 Develop mathematical models to explain experimental results

 Indicator 2.c.3 Explain of the significance of the y intercept

Benchmark 2.d
Use Interpolated, Extrapolated and Analyzed Trends to Make Predictions

 Indicator 2.d.1 Make predictions using interpolation/extrapolation/analysis of data

 Indicator 2.d.2 Make predictions using the area under a curve

Benchmark 2.e
Understand Methods Used to Analyze Situations with Vector Quantities

 Indicator 2.e.1 Use vectors to describe physical quantities and their interactions

 Indicator 2.e.2 Solve vector algebra problems using trigonometric & graphical methods

 Indicator 2.e.3 Represent an object’s motion by drawing vector diagrams

SCI.PH
Standard 3
UNDERSTAND THE NATURE OF SCIENCE, SCIENTIFIC REASONING, AND LOGIC

Benchmark 3.a
Analyze Scientific Sources to Develop and Refine Research Hypotheses

 Indicator 3.a.1 Critique & summarize a scientific article using logical argumentation

 Indicator 3.a.2 Identify a current research subject in physics; explain its importance

 Indicator 3.a.3 Analyze scientific sources to develop and refine research hypotheses

 Indicator 3.a.4 Evaluate research topic limitations and propose additional questions

Benchmark 3.b
Analyze How Science Explains and Predicts Relationships

 Indicator 3.b.1 Analyze data to identify trends and relationships

Benchmark 3.c
Evaluate Evidence for Scientific Theories

 Indicator 3.c.1 Defend a scientific theory using sound logic based on scientific data

Benchmark 3.d
Examine the Effects of New Discoveries on Theories & New Paradigms

 Indicator 3.d.1 Identify examples of a paradigm shift

 Indicator 3.d.2 Cite sources used in conducting investigations

 Indicator 3.d.3 Distinguish between scientific law and scientific theory

 Indicator 3.d.4 Review & revise procedures while conducting a scientific investigation

 Indicator 3.d.5 Understand the contributions of Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, etc.

 Indicator 3.d.6 Evaluate the impact of new scientific discoveries on existing theories

 Indicator 3.d.7 Trace the development of physical science: ancient cultures to present

 Indicator 3.d.8 Explain the reasons for the quest to develop a Grand Unified Theory

 Indicator 3.d.9 Discuss the achievements of the space program

 Indicator 3.d.10 Analyze and evaluate peer research proposals

Benchmark 3.e
Construct and Defend a Scientific Viewpoint

 Indicator 3.e.1 Explain the interaction between human nature & the scientific process

 Indicator 3.e.2 Write and present a formal lab report

 Indicator 3.e.3 Write a logical conclusion that is supported by experimental evidence

 Indicator 3.e.4 Compare and contrast science and pseudoscience

 Indicator 3.e.5 Evaluate what constitutes a valid scientific conclusion

 Indicator 3.e.6 Share experimental results with peers for review, analysis & criticism

 Indicator 3.e.7 Discuss the significance of the error found in results

SCI.PH
Standard 4
UNDERSTAND HOW APPLICATIONS OF PHYSICS AFFECT THE WORLD

Benchmark 4.a
Investigate and Understand Examples from the Real World

 Indicator 4.a.1 Propose and evaluate various explanations for scientific phenomena

 Indicator 4.a.2 Design, build and test a device to solve a real world problem

 Indicator 4.a.3 Evaluate the influence of physics principles in understanding problems

 Indicator 4.a.4 Create a device to model a physical system

 Indicator 4.a.5 Identify a problem that can be solved using new technologies

 Indicator 4.a.6 Evaluate the impact of satellites

Benchmark 4.b
Explore the Roles and Contributions of Science and Technology

 Indicator 4.b.1 Develop an awareness of real-world applications of physics

 Indicator 4.b.2 Describe the importance of physics in advancement of various fields

 Indicator 4.b.3 Utilize scientific information from a variety of sources

 Indicator 4.b.4 Use texts and references to gather information, conduct research, etc.

 Indicator 4.b.5 Understand the contributions of scientists: Coulomb, Ampere, Ohm, etc.

 Indicator 4.b.6 Distinguish between science and technology

 Indicator 4.b.7 Determine the physics principles behind various technologies

 Indicator 4.b.8 Explain how physics is applied in visual art, music or medicine

 Indicator 4.b.9 Identify the contributions of scientists: Becquerel, Curie, etc.

 Indicator 4.b.10 Evaluate the societal influences on research priorities

 Indicator 4.b.11 Discuss the interconnectivity of physics principles in technology

SCI.PH
Standard 5
UNDERSTAND INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG MASS, DISTANCE, FORCE, AND TIME

Benchmark 5.a
Investigate and Understand Linear Motion

 Indicator 5.a.1 Analyze the motion of objects undergoing constant acceleration

 Indicator 5.a.2 Distinguish between average and instantaneous velocity

 Indicator 5.a.3 Predict motion of objects & forces from different frames of reference

Benchmark 5.b
Investigate and Understand Uniform Circular Motion

 Indicator 5.b.1 Distinguish between centripetal and centrifugal force

 Indicator 5.b.2 Explore the relationships between radius, force, speed & acceleration

 Indicator 5.b.3 Analyze situations: centripetal force is a component of another force

Benchmark 5.c
Investigate and Understand Projectile Motion

 Indicator 5.c.1 Apply the force of gravity to study free-fall and projectile motion

 Indicator 5.c.2 Describe independence of horizontal & vertical motion of a projectile

 Indicator 5.c.3 Analyze projectile motion to solve for range, height & time of flight

 Indicator 5.c.4 Analyze projectiles launched at an angle

Benchmark 5.d
Investigate and Understand Newton's Laws of Motion

 Indicator 5.d.1 Classify forces as either contact forces or field forces

 Indicator 5.d.2 Explain the effect of the force of friction on the motion of objects

 Indicator 5.d.3 Apply Newton’s Laws of Motion to analyze the effects of applied forces

 Indicator 5.d.4 Understand the importance of Newton's Three Laws of Motion

 Indicator 5.d.5 Solve problems involving forces with vertical & horizontal components

 Indicator 5.d.6 Analyze a system with multiple masses

Benchmark 5.e
Investigate and Understand Gravitation

 Indicator 5.e.1 Calculate the gravitational force between two objects

 Indicator 5.e.2 Using the concept of gravitational field, distinguish mass vs. weight

 Indicator 5.e.3 Calculate the gravitational potential at a given distance from a mass

 Indicator 5.e.4 Describe the gradient of the potential

Benchmark 5.f
Investigate and Understand Planetary Motion

 Indicator 5.f.1 Combine universal gravitational & centripetal force to solve problems

 Indicator 5.f.2 Investigate the interactions of planetary systems using software

Benchmark 5.g
Investigate and Understand Work, Power and Energy

 Indicator 5.g.1 Calculate work done on a body & the power generated by applied force

 Indicator 5.g.2 Formulate the relationship between power, energy, and time

 Indicator 5.g.3 Apply the work-energy theorem in solving problems

 Indicator 5.g.4 Calculate the work done by a non-constant force

SCI.PH
Standard 6
UNDERSTAND THE CONSERVATION OF MASS, ENERGY, MOMENTUM, AND CHARGE

Benchmark 6.a
Investigate and Understand Kinetic and Potential Energy

 Indicator 6.a.1 Analyze the interaction of objects in a closed system

 Indicator 6.a.2 Understand when mechanical energy is a conserved quantity

Benchmark 6.b
Investigate and Understand Elastic and Inelastic Collisions

 Indicator 6.b.1 Provide and explain examples showing linear momentum = mass x velocity

 Indicator 6.b.2 Use collisions to analyze the interaction of objects in closed systems

 Indicator 6.b.3 Use collisions and explosions to analyze the interaction of objects

 Indicator 6.b.4 Derive the impulse-change in momentum theorem from Newton’s Second Law

 Indicator 6.b.5 Analyze a force-time graph to determine impulse

Benchmark 6.c
Investigate and Understand Mass/Energy Equivalence

 Indicator 6.c.1 Understand mass/energy equivalence

 Indicator 6.c.2 Understand when to apply the principle of mass/energy equivalence

SCI.PH
Standard 7
UNDERSTAND THAT ENERGY CAN BE TRANSFERRED AND TRANSFORMED

Benchmark 7.a
Understand the Transfer and Storage of Energy Among Systems

 Indicator 7.a.1 Compare and contrast electric energy transfer properties

 Indicator 7.a.2 Distinguish between various types of energy

 Indicator 7.a.3 Analyze the energy and momentum transfers in an open system

 Indicator 7.a.4 Explain heat flow & entropy in terms of the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

 Indicator 7.a.5 Define heat and distinguish between heat and temperature

 Indicator 7.a.6 Use the kinetic theory to predict quantitative relationships

Benchmark 7.b
Investigate and Understand the Efficiency of Systems

 Indicator 7.b.1 Analyze interactions in which energy is NOT conserved

 Indicator 7.b.2 Use real world examples to evaluate energy transformations

 Indicator 7.b.3 Apply the 1st Law of Thermodynamics to analyze energy transformations

SCI.PH
Standard 8
INVESTIGATE AND UNDERSTAND WAVE PHENOMENA

Benchmark 8.a
Investigate and Understand Wave Characteristics

 Indicator 8.a.1 Develop a wave model for mechanical energy transfer

 Indicator 8.a.2 Explain the relationship between wavelength, wave speed, and frequency

 Indicator 8.a.3 Understand that both waves and pendulums follow Simple Harmonic Motion

 Indicator 8.a.4 Write displacement of a mechanical wave as a trigonometric function

 Indicator 8.a.5 Predict changes in wave energy

Benchmark 8.b
Investigate and Understand Fundamental Wave Processes

 Indicator 8.b.1 Use the wave model to explore interference of mechanical waves

 Indicator 8.b.2 Distinguish between superimposed waves: in-phase vs. out-of-phase

 Indicator 8.b.3 Compare and contrast mechanical waves and electromagnetic waves

 Indicator 8.b.4 Graphically illustrate reflection, refraction & diffraction of a wave

 Indicator 8.b.5 Describe the Doppler effect

Benchmark 8.c
Investigate and Understand Light and Sound in Terms of Wave Models

 Indicator 8.c.1 Compare, contrast, and illustrate transverse and longitudinal waves

 Indicator 8.c.2 Use the wave model of light to explain polarization, diffraction, etc.

 Indicator 8.c.3 Explore a system that is resonating

 Indicator 8.c.4 Investigate beat frequencies

SCI.PH
Standard 9
UNDERSTAND FREQUENCIES & WAVELENGTHS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Benchmark 9.a
Understand Properties/Behaviors/Relative Size of Electromagnetic Waves

 Indicator 9.a.1 Analyze different electromagnetic wavelengths, frequencies & energies

Benchmark 9.b
Investigate and Understand the Wave/Particle Dual Nature of Light

 Indicator 9.b.1 Understand both wave & particle models are necessary to explain light

Benchmark 9.c
Understand Current Applications Based on the Respective Wavelengths

 Indicator 9.c.1 Investigate uses of various bands of the electromagnetic spectrum

SCI.PH
Standard 10
USE THE FIELD CONCEPT TO DESCRIBE THE EFFECTS OF FORCES

Benchmark 10.a
Investigate and Understand the Inverse Square Laws

 Indicator 10.a.1 Explain the gravitational attractive force between two objects

 Indicator 10.a.2 Explain the strength of an electric force

 Indicator 10.a.3 Calculate the electrostatic force between any two charged bodies

 Indicator 10.a.4 Calculate electrical field strength and sketch the field lines

 Indicator 10.a.5 Compare and contrast forces between charged objects of known mass

 Indicator 10.a.6 Identify electric fields around conductors and make comparisons

 Indicator 10.a.7 Calculate net electric field at a point from multiple charged objects

 Indicator 10.a.8 Describe the gravitational field strength (g)

Benchmark 10.b
Investigate and Understand Technological Applications

 Indicator 10.b.1 Explain the effects of moving electric charges and of moving magnets

 Indicator 10.b.2 Create or analyze a model for magnetism to explain magnetic fields

 Indicator 10.b.3 Explain the generation of various magnetic fields

 Indicator 10.b.4 Apply the right-hand rules to predict field behavior & particle motion

 Indicator 10.b.5 Explore the voltage & current generated by a changing magnetic field

 Indicator 10.b.6 Relate the behavior of fields to explain the operation of devices

SCI.PH
Standard 11
DIAGRAM, CONSTRUCT, AND ANALYZE ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

Benchmark 11.a
Investigate and Understand Ohm's Law

 Indicator 11.a.1 Apply Ohm’s Law to analyze various electric circuits

Benchmark 11.b
Investigate and Understand Series, Parallel, and Combined Circuits

 Indicator 11.b.1 Combine various electrical components to construct circuit diagrams

 Indicator 11.b.2 Calculate the effective resistance for electrical components connected

 Indicator 11.b.3 Analyze combination circuits

Benchmark 11.c
Investigate and Understand Electrical Power

 Indicator 11.c.1 Measure & analyze current and voltage for electrical system components

 Indicator 11.c.2 Calculate dissipated power in circuit elements

 Indicator 11.c.3 Apply conservation of charge to explain how objects become charged

 Indicator 11.c.4 Explain the relationships: charge, potential energy, potential diff.

 Indicator 11.c.5 Perform a cost-analysis to determine the energy usage of circuits

 Indicator 11.c.6 Derive expressions for electrical power

 Indicator 11.c.7 Describe the concept of internal resistance of an electrical cell

Benchmark 11.d
Investigate and Understand Alternating and Direct Currents

 Indicator 11.d.1 Recognize how DC power and AC power are supplied

 Indicator 11.d.2 Describe practical applications of circuit design

SCI.PH
Standard 12
UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCES FOR EXTREMELY LARGE OR SMALL QUANTITIES

Benchmark 12.a
Investigate and Understand Wave/Particle Duality

 Indicator 12.a.1 Explain and apply the wave/particle duality of light

 Indicator 12.a.2 Explain the phenomena that led to the particle/wave duality

Benchmark 12.b
Investigate and Understand Wave Properties of Matter

 Indicator 12.b.1 Explain the electron’s rotation around the nucleus as a standing wave

Benchmark 12.c
Investigate and Understand Matter/Energy Equivalence

 Indicator 12.c.1 State and apply Einstein's mass-energy equivalence

Benchmark 12.d
Investigate and Understand Quantum Mechanics and Uncertainty

 Indicator 12.d.1 Predict the momentum or location of a moving particle

 Indicator 12.d.2 Understand the contributions of scientists to quantum mechanics

Benchmark 12.e
Investigate and Understand Relativity

 Indicator 12.e.1 Express the general and special theories of relativity

 Indicator 12.e.2 Find time dilation and length contraction

Benchmark 12.f
Investigate and Understand Nuclear Physics

 Indicator 12.f.1 Describe the processes of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion

 Indicator 12.f.2 Distinguish among the four fundamental forces of nature

 Indicator 12.f.3 Define mass defect and binding energy

 Indicator 12.f.4 Discuss the issues faced by the developers of the atomic bomb

Benchmark 12.g
Investigate and Understand Solid State Physics

 Indicator 12.g.1 Explore solid state physics: semiconductors, diodes, transistors

Benchmark 12.h
Investigate and Understand Nanotechnology

 Indicator 12.h.1 Provide examples of technologies used to explore the nanoscale

Benchmark 12.i
Investigate and Understand Superconductivity

 Indicator 12.i.1 Explore the nature of superconductors and semiconductors

Benchmark 12.j