Science Curriculum
  Physics
 

Physics 1 introduces the central concepts of physics, including kinematics, dynamics, the conservation laws (mass, energy, and momentum), electricity and magnetism, and waves. This laboratory-centered course utilizes an approach that is inductive and mathematical as well as conceptual.

Last Updated: 08/17/12 10:34 AM
 
 
SCI.PH
Standard 1
  PLAN AND CONDUCT INVESTIGATIONS USING EXPERIMENTAL & PRODUCT DESIGN
 

Benchmark 1.a
Define the Components of a System
 
Indicator 1.a.1
Identify the components of a system
 
Indicator 1.a.2
Differentiate between open and closed systems
 

Benchmark 1.b
Select and Use Instruments to Extend Observations and Measurements
 
Indicator 1.b.1
Measure and record position, time, etc. using appropriate technology
 
Indicator 1.b.2
Use lab equipment safely and appropriately
 

Benchmark 1.c
Record and Present Information in an Organized Format
 
Indicator 1.c.1
Create graphs, charts, and tables to communicate experimental results
 
Indicator 1.c.2
Formulate and implement a procedure for testing hypotheses
 
Indicator 1.c.3
Synthesize various points of view from group members
 
Indicator 1.c.4
Debate theories and ideas with peers in group discussions
 
Indicator 1.c.5
Collaborate with peers to design presentations
 

Benchmark 1.d
Recognize the Limitations of the Experimental Apparatus and Design
 
Indicator 1.d.1
Distinguish dependent & independent variables, constants, controls
 
Indicator 1.d.2
Analyze experimental errors qualitatively (precision and accuracy)
 
Indicator 1.d.3
Recognize that no measurement is complete without its uncertainty
 
Indicator 1.d.4
Determine accuracy of measurement
 
Indicator 1.d.5
Determine precision of measurement using range or standard deviation
 
Indicator 1.d.6
Determine percent error in a calculated result from experimental data
 
Indicator 1.d.7
Represent uncertainty in measurement as an error bar on a graph
 

Benchmark 1.e
Recognize the Limitations of Measured Quantities
 
Indicator 1.e.1
Verify the results of calculations using order of magnitude estimates
 
Indicator 1.e.2
Apply rules of significant figures in measurements and calculations
 
Indicator 1.e.3
Minimize errors in measurement by averaging data from multiple trials
 

Benchmark 1.f
Understand the Uses of Models and Simulations
 
Indicator 1.f.1
Use simulations to model physical phenomena
 
Indicator 1.f.2
Manipulate simulation software to model scientific investigations
 

Benchmark 1.g
Use Technology To Gather & Analyze Data and Communicate Results
 
Indicator 1.g.1
Generate and analyze a graph using a computer
 
Indicator 1.g.2
Perform a lab that uses technology
 
Indicator 1.g.3
Demonstrate proficiency using probeware for data collection, etc.
 
Indicator 1.g.4
Discriminate computer-collected data by extracting useful data
 
Indicator 1.g.5
Design presentations that employ current media technologies
 
SCI.PH
Standard 2
  ANALYZE AND INTERPRET DATA
 

Benchmark 2.a
Translate a Physical Problem Into a Mathematical Statement
 
Indicator 2.a.1
Use equations or inequalities to model physical phenomena or events
 
Indicator 2.a.2
Use dimensional analysis in analyzing data and solving problems
 
Indicator 2.a.3
Use dimensional analysis to verify appropriate units
 
Indicator 2.a.4
Provide a mathematical rationale for a conclusion
 

Benchmark 2.b
Determine Relationships by Using the Shape of a Curve Through Data
 
Indicator 2.b.1
Use graphical depictions to describe physical phenomena
 
Indicator 2.b.2
Interpret and explain graphs to describe the motion of objects
 
Indicator 2.b.3
Explain math relationships between quantities using graphical analysis
 
Indicator 2.b.4
Develop a linear graph and function from non-linear data
 

Benchmark 2.c
Calculate the Slope of a Linear Relationship
 
Indicator 2.c.1
Calculate the slope of a linear relationship with appropriate units
 
Indicator 2.c.2
Develop mathematical models to explain experimental results
 
Indicator 2.c.3
Explain of the significance of the y intercept
 

Benchmark 2.d
Use Interpolated, Extrapolated and Analyzed Trends to Make Predictions
 
Indicator 2.d.1
Make predictions using interpolation/extrapolation/analysis of data
 
Indicator 2.d.2
Make predictions using the area under a curve
 

Benchmark 2.e
Understand Methods Used to Analyze Situations with Vector Quantities
 
Indicator 2.e.1
Use vectors to describe physical quantities and their interactions
 
Indicator 2.e.2
Solve vector algebra problems using trigonometric & graphical methods
 
Indicator 2.e.3
Represent an object’s motion by drawing vector diagrams
 
SCI.PH
Standard 3
  UNDERSTAND THE NATURE OF SCIENCE, SCIENTIFIC REASONING, AND LOGIC
 

Benchmark 3.a
Analyze Scientific Sources to Develop and Refine Research Hypotheses
 
Indicator 3.a.1
Critique & summarize a scientific article using logical argumentation
 
Indicator 3.a.2
Identify a current research subject in physics; explain its importance
 
Indicator 3.a.3
Analyze scientific sources to develop and refine research hypotheses
 
Indicator 3.a.4
Evaluate research topic limitations and propose additional questions
 

Benchmark 3.b
Analyze How Science Explains and Predicts Relationships
 
Indicator 3.b.1
Analyze data to identify trends and relationships
 

Benchmark 3.c
Evaluate Evidence for Scientific Theories
 
Indicator 3.c.1
Defend a scientific theory using sound logic based on scientific data
 

Benchmark 3.d
Examine the Effects of New Discoveries on Theories & New Paradigms
 
Indicator 3.d.1
Identify examples of a paradigm shift
 
Indicator 3.d.2
Cite sources used in conducting investigations
 
Indicator 3.d.3
Distinguish between scientific law and scientific theory
 
Indicator 3.d.4
Review & revise procedures while conducting a scientific investigation
 
Indicator 3.d.5
Understand the contributions of Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, etc.
 
Indicator 3.d.6
Evaluate the impact of new scientific discoveries on existing theories
 
Indicator 3.d.7
Trace the development of physical science: ancient cultures to present
 
Indicator 3.d.8
Explain the reasons for the quest to develop a Grand Unified Theory
 
Indicator 3.d.9
Discuss the achievements of the space program
 
Indicator 3.d.10
Analyze and evaluate peer research proposals
 

Benchmark 3.e
Construct and Defend a Scientific Viewpoint
 
Indicator 3.e.1
Explain the interaction between human nature & the scientific process
 
Indicator 3.e.2
Write and present a formal lab report
 
Indicator 3.e.3
Write a logical conclusion that is supported by experimental evidence
 
Indicator 3.e.4
Compare and contrast science and pseudoscience
 
Indicator 3.e.5
Evaluate what constitutes a valid scientific conclusion
 
Indicator 3.e.6
Share experimental results with peers for review, analysis & criticism
 
Indicator 3.e.7
Discuss the significance of the error found in results
 
SCI.PH
Standard 4
  UNDERSTAND HOW APPLICATIONS OF PHYSICS AFFECT THE WORLD
 

Benchmark 4.a
Investigate and Understand Examples from the Real World
 
Indicator 4.a.1
Propose and evaluate various explanations for scientific phenomena
 
Indicator 4.a.2
Design, build and test a device to solve a real world problem
 
Indicator 4.a.3
Evaluate the influence of physics principles in understanding problems
 
Indicator 4.a.4
Create a device to model a physical system
 
Indicator 4.a.5
Identify a problem that can be solved using new technologies
 
Indicator 4.a.6
Evaluate the impact of satellites
 

Benchmark 4.b
Explore the Roles and Contributions of Science and Technology
 
Indicator 4.b.1
Develop an awareness of real-world applications of physics
 
Indicator 4.b.2
Describe the importance of physics in advancement of various fields
 
Indicator 4.b.3
Utilize scientific information from a variety of sources
 
Indicator 4.b.4
Use texts and references to gather information, conduct research, etc.
 
Indicator 4.b.5
Understand the contributions of scientists: Coulomb, Ampere, Ohm, etc.
 
Indicator 4.b.6
Distinguish between science and technology
 
Indicator 4.b.7
Determine the physics principles behind various technologies
 
Indicator 4.b.8
Explain how physics is applied in visual art, music or medicine
 
Indicator 4.b.9
Identify the contributions of scientists: Becquerel, Curie, etc.
 
Indicator 4.b.10
Evaluate the societal influences on research priorities
 
Indicator 4.b.11
Discuss the interconnectivity of physics principles in technology
 
SCI.PH
Standard 5
  UNDERSTAND INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG MASS, DISTANCE, FORCE, AND TIME
 

Benchmark 5.a
Investigate and Understand Linear Motion
 
Indicator 5.a.1
Analyze the motion of objects undergoing constant acceleration
 
Indicator 5.a.2
Distinguish between average and instantaneous velocity
 
Indicator 5.a.3
Predict motion of objects & forces from different frames of reference
 

Benchmark 5.b
Investigate and Understand Uniform Circular Motion
 
Indicator 5.b.1
Distinguish between centripetal and centrifugal force
 
Indicator 5.b.2
Explore the relationships between radius, force, speed & acceleration
 
Indicator 5.b.3
Analyze situations: centripetal force is a component of another force
 

Benchmark 5.c
Investigate and Understand Projectile Motion
 
Indicator 5.c.1
Apply the force of gravity to study free-fall and projectile motion
 
Indicator 5.c.2
Describe independence of horizontal & vertical motion of a projectile
 
Indicator 5.c.3
Analyze projectile motion to solve for range, height & time of flight
 
Indicator 5.c.4
Analyze projectiles launched at an angle
 

Benchmark 5.d
Investigate and Understand Newton's Laws of Motion
 
Indicator 5.d.1
Classify forces as either contact forces or field forces
 
Indicator 5.d.2
Explain the effect of the force of friction on the motion of objects
 
Indicator 5.d.3
Apply Newton’s Laws of Motion to analyze the effects of applied forces
 
Indicator 5.d.4
Understand the importance of Newton's Three Laws of Motion
 
Indicator 5.d.5
Solve problems involving forces with vertical & horizontal components
 
Indicator 5.d.6
Analyze a system with multiple masses
 

Benchmark 5.e
Investigate and Understand Gravitation
 
Indicator 5.e.1
Calculate the gravitational force between two objects
 
Indicator 5.e.2
Using the concept of gravitational field, distinguish mass vs. weight
 
Indicator 5.e.3
Calculate the gravitational potential at a given distance from a mass
 
Indicator 5.e.4
Describe the gradient of the potential
 

Benchmark 5.f
Investigate and Understand Planetary Motion
 
Indicator 5.f.1
Combine universal gravitational & centripetal force to solve problems
 
Indicator 5.f.2
Investigate the interactions of planetary systems using software
 

Benchmark 5.g
Investigate and Understand Work, Power and Energy
 
Indicator 5.g.1
Calculate work done on a body & the power generated by applied force
 
Indicator 5.g.2
Formulate the relationship between power, energy, and time
 
Indicator 5.g.3
Apply the work-energy theorem in solving problems
 
Indicator 5.g.4
Calculate the work done by a non-constant force
 
SCI.PH
Standard 6
  UNDERSTAND THE CONSERVATION OF MASS, ENERGY, MOMENTUM, AND CHARGE
 

Benchmark 6.a
Investigate and Understand Kinetic and Potential Energy
 
Indicator 6.a.1
Analyze the interaction of objects in a closed system
 
Indicator 6.a.2
Understand when mechanical energy is a conserved quantity
 

Benchmark 6.b
Investigate and Understand Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
 
Indicator 6.b.1
Provide and explain examples showing linear momentum = mass x velocity
 
Indicator 6.b.2
Use collisions to analyze the interaction of objects in closed systems
 
Indicator 6.b.3
Use collisions and explosions to analyze the interaction of objects
 
Indicator 6.b.4
Derive the impulse-change in momentum theorem from Newton’s Second Law
 
Indicator 6.b.5
Analyze a force-time graph to determine impulse
 

Benchmark 6.c
Investigate and Understand Mass/Energy Equivalence
 
Indicator 6.c.1
Understand mass/energy equivalence
 
Indicator 6.c.2
Understand when to apply the principle of mass/energy equivalence
 
SCI.PH
Standard 7
  UNDERSTAND THAT ENERGY CAN BE TRANSFERRED AND TRANSFORMED
 

Benchmark 7.a
Understand the Transfer and Storage of Energy Among Systems
 
Indicator 7.a.1
Compare and contrast electric energy transfer properties
 
Indicator 7.a.2
Distinguish between various types of energy
 
Indicator 7.a.3
Analyze the energy and momentum transfers in an open system
 
Indicator 7.a.4
Explain heat flow & entropy in terms of the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
 
Indicator 7.a.5
Define heat and distinguish between heat and temperature
 
Indicator 7.a.6
Use the kinetic theory to predict quantitative relationships
 

Benchmark 7.b
Investigate and Understand the Efficiency of Systems
 
Indicator 7.b.1
Analyze interactions in which energy is NOT conserved
 
Indicator 7.b.2
Use real world examples to evaluate energy transformations
 
Indicator 7.b.3
Apply the 1st Law of Thermodynamics to analyze energy transformations
 
SCI.PH
Standard 8
  INVESTIGATE AND UNDERSTAND WAVE PHENOMENA
 

Benchmark 8.a
Investigate and Understand Wave Characteristics
 
Indicator 8.a.1
Develop a wave model for mechanical energy transfer
 
Indicator 8.a.2
Explain the relationship between wavelength, wave speed, and frequency
 
Indicator 8.a.3
Understand that both waves and pendulums follow Simple Harmonic Motion
 
Indicator 8.a.4
Write displacement of a mechanical wave as a trigonometric function
 
Indicator 8.a.5
Predict changes in wave energy
 

Benchmark 8.b
Investigate and Understand Fundamental Wave Processes
 
Indicator 8.b.1
Use the wave model to explore interference of mechanical waves
 
Indicator 8.b.2
Distinguish between superimposed waves: in-phase vs. out-of-phase
 
Indicator 8.b.3
Compare and contrast mechanical waves and electromagnetic waves
 
Indicator 8.b.4
Graphically illustrate reflection, refraction & diffraction of a wave
 
Indicator 8.b.5
Describe the Doppler effect
 

Benchmark 8.c
Investigate and Understand Light and Sound in Terms of Wave Models
 
Indicator 8.c.1
Compare, contrast, and illustrate transverse and longitudinal waves
 
Indicator 8.c.2
Use the wave model of light to explain polarization, diffraction, etc.
 
Indicator 8.c.3
Explore a system that is resonating
 
Indicator 8.c.4
Investigate beat frequencies
 
SCI.PH
Standard 9
  UNDERSTAND FREQUENCIES & WAVELENGTHS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
 

Benchmark 9.a
Understand Properties/Behaviors/Relative Size of Electromagnetic Waves
 
Indicator 9.a.1
Analyze different electromagnetic wavelengths, frequencies & energies
 

Benchmark 9.b
Investigate and Understand the Wave/Particle Dual Nature of Light
 
Indicator 9.b.1
Understand both wave & particle models are necessary to explain light
 

Benchmark 9.c
Understand Current Applications Based on the Respective Wavelengths
 
Indicator 9.c.1
Investigate uses of various bands of the electromagnetic spectrum
 
SCI.PH
Standard 10
  USE THE FIELD CONCEPT TO DESCRIBE THE EFFECTS OF FORCES
 

Benchmark 10.a
Investigate and Understand the Inverse Square Laws
 
Indicator 10.a.1
Explain the gravitational attractive force between two objects
 
Indicator 10.a.2
Explain the strength of an electric force
 
Indicator 10.a.3
Calculate the electrostatic force between any two charged bodies
 
Indicator 10.a.4
Calculate electrical field strength and sketch the field lines
 
Indicator 10.a.5
Compare and contrast forces between charged objects of known mass
 
Indicator 10.a.6
Identify electric fields around conductors and make comparisons
 
Indicator 10.a.7
Calculate net electric field at a point from multiple charged objects
 
Indicator 10.a.8
Describe the gravitational field strength (g)
 

Benchmark 10.b
Investigate and Understand Technological Applications
 
Indicator 10.b.1
Explain the effects of moving electric charges and of moving magnets
 
Indicator 10.b.2
Create or analyze a model for magnetism to explain magnetic fields
 
Indicator 10.b.3
Explain the generation of various magnetic fields
 
Indicator 10.b.4
Apply the right-hand rules to predict field behavior & particle motion
 
Indicator 10.b.5
Explore the voltage & current generated by a changing magnetic field
 
Indicator 10.b.6
Relate the behavior of fields to explain the operation of devices
 
SCI.PH
Standard 11
  DIAGRAM, CONSTRUCT, AND ANALYZE ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS
 

Benchmark 11.a
Investigate and Understand Ohm's Law
 
Indicator 11.a.1
Apply Ohm’s Law to analyze various electric circuits
 

Benchmark 11.b
Investigate and Understand Series, Parallel, and Combined Circuits
 
Indicator 11.b.1
Combine various electrical components to construct circuit diagrams
 
Indicator 11.b.2
Calculate the effective resistance for electrical components connected
 
Indicator 11.b.3
Analyze combination circuits
 

Benchmark 11.c
Investigate and Understand Electrical Power
 
Indicator 11.c.1
Measure & analyze current and voltage for electrical system components
 
Indicator 11.c.2
Calculate dissipated power in circuit elements
 
Indicator 11.c.3
Apply conservation of charge to explain how objects become charged
 
Indicator 11.c.4
Explain the relationships: charge, potential energy, potential diff.
 
Indicator 11.c.5
Perform a cost-analysis to determine the energy usage of circuits
 
Indicator 11.c.6
Derive expressions for electrical power
 
Indicator 11.c.7
Describe the concept of internal resistance of an electrical cell
 

Benchmark 11.d
Investigate and Understand Alternating and Direct Currents
 
Indicator 11.d.1
Recognize how DC power and AC power are supplied
 
Indicator 11.d.2
Describe practical applications of circuit design
 
SCI.PH
Standard 12
  UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCES FOR EXTREMELY LARGE OR SMALL QUANTITIES
 

Benchmark 12.a
Investigate and Understand Wave/Particle Duality
 
Indicator 12.a.1
Explain and apply the wave/particle duality of light
 
Indicator 12.a.2
Explain the phenomena that led to the particle/wave duality
 

Benchmark 12.b
Investigate and Understand Wave Properties of Matter
 
Indicator 12.b.1
Explain the electron’s rotation around the nucleus as a standing wave
 

Benchmark 12.c
Investigate and Understand Matter/Energy Equivalence
 
Indicator 12.c.1
State and apply Einstein's mass-energy equivalence
 

Benchmark 12.d
Investigate and Understand Quantum Mechanics and Uncertainty
 
Indicator 12.d.1
Predict the momentum or location of a moving particle
 
Indicator 12.d.2
Understand the contributions of scientists to quantum mechanics
 

Benchmark 12.e
Investigate and Understand Relativity
 
Indicator 12.e.1
Express the general and special theories of relativity
 
Indicator 12.e.2
Find time dilation and length contraction
 

Benchmark 12.f
Investigate and Understand Nuclear Physics
 
Indicator 12.f.1
Describe the processes of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
 
Indicator 12.f.2
Distinguish among the four fundamental forces of nature
 
Indicator 12.f.3
Define mass defect and binding energy
 
Indicator 12.f.4
Discuss the issues faced by the developers of the atomic bomb
 

Benchmark 12.g
Investigate and Understand Solid State Physics
 
Indicator 12.g.1
Explore solid state physics: semiconductors, diodes, transistors
 

Benchmark 12.h
Investigate and Understand Nanotechnology
 
Indicator 12.h.1
Provide examples of technologies used to explore the nanoscale
 

Benchmark 12.i
Investigate and Understand Superconductivity
 
Indicator 12.i.1
Explore the nature of superconductors and semiconductors
 

Benchmark 12.j
Investigate and Understand Radioactivity
 
Indicator 12.j.1
Explain natural radioactivity
 
Indicator 12.j.2
Determine the half-life of a nuclide from a decay curve


Essential - Standard, benchmark, or indicator from the VDOE Standards of Learning document. In the absence of VDOE standards for a given course, content subject to testing such as AP and IB can be labeled Essential.
Expected - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies to provide a context, a bridge, or an enhancement to the Essential SBIs.
Extended - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies generally used to differentiate instruction for advanced learners (Honors/GT)