Language Arts/English Curriculum
  English 9

Students read and analyze a variety of literary and nonfiction texts, exploring the characteristics of different forms and the techniques authors use to achieve their intended purpose. Language study extends students’ vocabulary through learning about connotations, denotations, word origins, and structures. Students apply their understanding of grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing to varied and frequent writing assignments. Through narrative, expository, and persuasive writings, students build on their understanding of writing as a process of prewriting, drafting, revising, and publishing. In the research process, students find, evaluate, and select appropriate sources to access information to create a research product. They also develop communication skills through listening to and practicing oral presentations. 


(This is a Standards of Learning aligned course, which is tested in 11th grade.)

Last Updated: 08/17/12 10:15 AM
Standard 1

Benchmark 1.a
Include Definitions to Increase Clarity
Indicator 1.a.1
Define technical and specialized language to increase clarity

Benchmark 1.b
Use Relevant Details to Support Main Ideas
Indicator 1.b.1
Incorporate details to support the main ideas of oral presentations
Indicator 1.b.2
Evaluate information sources for reliability, accuracy, and relevance

Benchmark 1.c
Illustrate Main Ideas Through Anecdotes and Examples
Indicator 1.c.1
Support main ideas of oral presentations through examples
Indicator 1.c.2
Choose anecdotes, examples that are relevant, meaningful to audience

Benchmark 1.d
Use Language Appropriate to Topic, Audience, and Purpose
Indicator 1.d.1
Use grammar, vocab appropriate for situation, topic, audience, purpose
Indicator 1.d.2
Organize presentation appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose

Benchmark 1.e
Use Verbal and Nonverbal Techniques for Presentation
Indicator 1.e.1
Use verbal techniques
Indicator 1.e.2
Use nonverbal techniques
Indicator 1.e.3
Keep eye contact, adjust volume, be aware of posture, gestures, etc.
Indicator 1.e.4
Use visual aids to support the content of the presentation

Benchmark 1.f
Evaluate Impact and Purpose of Presentation
Indicator 1.f.1
Assess the impact of presentations using a rubric or checklist
Indicator 1.f.2
Analyze, critique relationship among purpose, audience, and content
Indicator 1.f.3
Analyze, critique the effectiveness of speaker's voice, gestures, etc.
Indicator 1.f.4
Use group feedback to revise future presentations

Benchmark 1.g
Cite Information Sources
Indicator 1.g.1
Give credit to sources by citing authors, researchers, titles, etc.
Indicator 1.g.2
Cite sources according to proper MLA or APA format

Benchmark 1.h
Give Impromptu Responses to Questions About Presentations
Indicator 1.h.1
Respond to questions about oral presentations

Benchmark 1.i
Give, Follow Spoken Directions to Perform Tasks, Solve Problems, etc.
Indicator 1.i.1
Give, follow spoken directions to perform tasks, solve problems, etc.
Indicator 1.i.2
Engage others in a conversation by posing and responding to questions

Benchmark 1.j
Use a Variety of Strategies to Listen Actively
Indicator 1.j.1
Listen actively, look at speaker, show attentiveness, give feedback

Benchmark 1.k
Summarize, Evaluate Information Presented Orally by Others
Indicator 1.k.1
Summarize, paraphrase others to show attentiveness; provide evaluation

Benchmark 1.l
Assume Shared Responsibility for Collaborative Work
Indicator 1.l.1
Collaborate to set rules for group presentations and discussions
Indicator 1.l.2
Exercise flexibility to make compromises to accomplish a goal
Indicator 1.l.3
Define a team goal and work toward its mastery
Indicator 1.l.4
Maintain collaboration by acknowledging and respecting all ideas
Indicator 1.l.5
Demonstrate respect for ideas acknowledging differing points of view
Indicator 1.l.6
Come to agreement by seeking consensus
Indicator 1.l.7
Develop speaking, listening skills through collaboration, discussion
Indicator 1.l.8
Collaborate with others to exchange ideas, solve problems, etc.
Standard 2

Benchmark 2.a
Analyze and Interpret Special Effects Used in Media Messages
Indicator 2.a.1
Evaluate how special effects in a media message persuade viewers

Benchmark 2.b
Determine the Purpose of the Media Message and Its Effect on Audience
Indicator 2.b.1
Determine the purpose of the media message
Indicator 2.b.2
Identify and evaluate word choice in the media
Indicator 2.b.3
Comprehend persuasive language, connotations to convey viewpoint, bias
Indicator 2.b.4
Analyze how persuasive techniques change viewers' behavior
Indicator 2.b.5
Describe effect of persuasive messages in media on the audience
Indicator 2.b.6
Reflect on elements of media messages that impact own behaviors, etc.

Benchmark 2.c
Describe Relationships in Mass Media Coverage, Public Opinion Trends
Indicator 2.c.1
Identify public opinion trends and possible causes

Benchmark 2.d
Evaluate Sources for Relationships Between Intent and Factual Content
Indicator 2.d.1
Evaluate sources for relationships between intent and factual content
Indicator 2.d.2
Identify and analyze sources and viewpoints in the media
Indicator 2.d.3
Analyze information in the media and distinguish fact and opinion

Benchmark 2.e
Monitor, Analyze, and Use Multiple Streams of Simultaneous Information
Indicator 2.e.1
Analyze information from many different print and electronic sources
Indicator 2.e.2
Investigate the use of bias and viewpoints in media
Indicator 2.e.3
Create, publish media messages with different purposes
Indicator 2.e.4
Analyze how an audience creates meaning through synthesis of messages
Standard 3

Benchmark 3.a
Use Structural Analysis of Roots, Affixes, etc. to Understand Words
Indicator 3.a.1
Use roots or affixes to determine the meanings of complex words
Indicator 3.a.2
Use synonyms and antonyms to understand the meaning of complex words
Indicator 3.a.3
Use cognates to understand the meaning of complex words

Benchmark 3.b
Use Context, Structure, etc. to Determine Meanings of Words, Phrases
Indicator 3.b.1
Use context as a clue to the meanings of a word or phrase
Indicator 3.b.2
Use word structure to analyze and relate words
Indicator 3.b.3
Demonstrate an understanding of connotations in word meaning
Indicator 3.b.4
Demonstrate an understanding of word relationships in word meaning
Indicator 3.b.5
Use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings, etc.

Benchmark 3.c
Discriminate Between Connotative and Denotative Meanings
Indicator 3.c.1
Analyze and interpret connotations of words with similar denotations
Indicator 3.c.2
Demonstrate understanding of word relationships, nuances in meaning
Indicator 3.c.3
Connect how author's purpose affects the connotations of words

Benchmark 3.d
Identify the Meaning of Common Idioms
Indicator 3.d.1
Demonstrate an understanding of idioms

Benchmark 3.e
Identify Literary, Classical Allusions and Figurative Language in Text
Indicator 3.e.1
Use prior knowledge and other study to identify meaning of allusions
Indicator 3.e.2
Demonstrate an understanding of figurative language in word meanings
Indicator 3.e.3
Interpret figures of speech in context and analyze their roles in text
Indicator 3.e.4
Evaluate use of figurative language to determine how it enriches text

Benchmark 3.f
Extend Vocabulary through Speaking, Reading, and Writing
Indicator 3.f.1
Extend vocabulary through speaking, reading, and writing
Indicator 3.f.2
Consult reference materials to find the pronunciation, meaning, etc.

Benchmark 3.g
Use Knowledge of Language to Comprehend Texts
Indicator 3.g.1
Use knowledge of language to comprehend texts
Indicator 3.g.2
Analyze how word etymology impacts contemporary usage
Standard 4

Benchmark 4.a
Identify Author's Main Idea and Purpose
Indicator 4.a.1
Identify author's main idea and purpose

Benchmark 4.b
Summarize Text Relating Supporting Details
Indicator 4.b.1
Identify supporting details
Indicator 4.b.2
Summarize the text relating the supporting details

Benchmark 4.c
Identify the Characteristics That Distinguish Literary Forms
Indicator 4.c.1
Identify the characteristics that distinguish literary forms
Indicator 4.c.2
Identify and analyze elements of dramatic literature
Indicator 4.c.3
Identify and analyze the characteristics of narratives
Indicator 4.c.4
Identify and analyze the characteristics of poetry
Indicator 4.c.5
Identify, analyze the characteristics of essays, narrative nonfiction

Benchmark 4.d
Use Literary Terms in Describing and Analyzing Sections
Indicator 4.d.1
Use literary terms in describing and analyzing selections
Indicator 4.d.2
Use academic language when describing, analyzing literary selections

Benchmark 4.e
Explain the Relationship Among Elements of Literature
Indicator 4.e.1
Explain the relationship among elements of literature
Indicator 4.e.2
Analyze how characters develop, interact, advance plot, develop theme
Indicator 4.e.3
Analyze how authors create multilayered characters
Indicator 4.e.4
Analyze how the plot structures advance the action in literature
Indicator 4.e.5
Determine theme of a text and analyze its development throughout text
Indicator 4.e.6
Describe how stage directions help the reader understand the play

Benchmark 4.f
Compare, Contrast How Literary Devices Convey Message, Elicit Emotion
Indicator 4.f.1
Identify sound devices
Indicator 4.f.2
Compare, contrast sound devices to convey a message, elicit emotion
Indicator 4.f.3
Compare, contrast types of figurative language, other literary devices
Indicator 4.f.4
Reflect on one's own emotional response to a piece of literature

Benchmark 4.g
Analyze the Cultural or Social Function of a Literary Text
Indicator 4.g.1
Analyze the cultural or social function of a literary text

Benchmark 4.h
Explain Relationship Between the Author's Style and Literary Effect
Indicator 4.h.1
Explain relationship between the author's style literary effect
Indicator 4.h.2
Apply elements of other authors' styles to create an original work

Benchmark 4.i
Explain Influence of Historical Context on Form, Style, Point of View
Indicator 4.i.1
Explain influence of historical context on form, style, point of view
Indicator 4.i.2
Analyze a point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work
Indicator 4.i.3
Analyze literature for historical information

Benchmark 4.j
Compare, Contrast Author's Use of Literary Elements among Genres
Indicator 4.j.1
Compare, contrast author's use of literary elements among genres
Indicator 4.j.2
Identify, analyze author's use of structuring techniques in literature
Indicator 4.j.3
Analyze techniques used by authors to convey info about a character
Indicator 4.j.4
Analyze character types
Indicator 4.j.5
Compare and contrast subject or key scene in two different media

Benchmark 4.k
Analyze How Word Choice and Syntax Achieve Effects and Support Purpose
Indicator 4.k.1
Analyze how word choice and syntax achieve effects and support purpose
Indicator 4.k.2
Identify, analyze author's use of diction, syntax to convey ideas

Benchmark 4.l
Make Predictions/Inferences, Draw Conclusions, Connect Prior Knowledge
Indicator 4.l.1
Make predictions to support reading comprehension
Indicator 4.l.2
Make inferences to support reading comprehension
Indicator 4.l.3
Draw conclusions to support reading comprehension
Indicator 4.l.4
Connect prior knowledge to support reading comprehension

Benchmark 4.m
Use Reading Strategies to Monitor Comprehension
Indicator 4.m.1
Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension
Standard 5

Benchmark 5.a
Recognize Author's Intended Purpose for Writing and Identify Main Idea
Indicator 5.a.1
Explain author's purpose in informational text
Indicator 5.a.2
Explain author's purpose in functional text
Indicator 5.a.3
Identify and infer the main idea of complex informational texts
Indicator 5.a.4
Compare purpose, main idea of fiction, nonfiction on same topic

Benchmark 5.b
Summarize Text Relating Supporting Details
Indicator 5.b.1
Summarize details that support the main idea of informational text

Benchmark 5.c
Use Text Structures to Locate Information, Gain Meaning from Texts
Indicator 5.c.1
Examine text structures to comprehend and analyze
Indicator 5.c.2
Demonstrate the use of text features to locate information

Benchmark 5.d
Identify Characteristics of Expository, Technical, Persuasive Texts
Indicator 5.d.1
Identify characteristics of expository texts
Indicator 5.d.2
Identify characteristics of technical texts
Indicator 5.d.3
Identify characteristics of persuasive texts
Indicator 5.d.4
Compare characteristics of texts from different genres

Benchmark 5.e
Identify Position/Argument to be Confirmed, Disproved, or Modified
Indicator 5.e.1
Identify an author's position/argument within informational text
Indicator 5.e.2
Analyze multiple texts with conflicting information on the same topic

Benchmark 5.f
Evaluate Clarity, Accuracy of Information Found in Informational Texts
Indicator 5.f.1
Evaluate clarity, accuracy of information found in informational texts
Indicator 5.f.2
Evaluate clarity, accuracy of information found in functional texts

Benchmark 5.g
Analyze and Synthesize Information to Solve Problems, etc.
Indicator 5.g.1
Analyze and synthesize information to solve problems, etc.

Benchmark 5.h
Draw Conclusions, Make Inferences on Explicit and Implied Information
Indicator 5.h.1
Draw conclusions, make inferences from complex informational texts
Indicator 5.h.2
Explain, communicate inferences, etc. based on explicit, implied info.

Benchmark 5.i
Differentiate Between Fact and Opinion
Indicator 5.i.1
Differentiate between fact and opinion

Benchmark 5.j
Organize and Synthesize Information for Writings and Presentations
Indicator 5.j.1
Organize and synthesize information for writings and presentations
Indicator 5.j.2
Synthesize information on a topic of personal or global significance

Benchmark 5.k
Use Reading Strategies to Monitor Comprehension
Indicator 5.k.1
Use a variety of reading strategies to self-monitor comprehension
Standard 6

Benchmark 6.a
Generate, Gather, and Organize Ideas for Writing
Indicator 6.a.1
Generate and gather ideas for writing
Indicator 6.a.2
Use prewriting strategies and organize writing

Benchmark 6.b
Plan, Organize Writing to Address a Specific Audience and Purpose
Indicator 6.b.1
Plan and develop writing with an appropriate audience and purpose
Indicator 6.b.2
Plan and develop organized written products
Indicator 6.b.3
Plan writing that reflects an appropriate point of view
Indicator 6.b.4
Practice writing for shorter and extended time frames

Benchmark 6.c
Communicate Clearly Purpose of the Writing Using a Thesis Statement
Indicator 6.c.1
Demonstrate writing purpose as narrative, persuasive, expository, etc.
Indicator 6.c.2
Write a clear, focused thesis that addresses the purpose of writing
Indicator 6.c.3
Provide an engaging introduction and a clear thesis statement
Indicator 6.c.4
Write to an authentic audience for the chosen topic

Benchmark 6.d
Write Clear, Varied Sentences Using Specific Vocabulary, Information
Indicator 6.d.1
Write clear, varied sentences, and increase use of embedded clauses
Indicator 6.d.2
Use specific vocabulary and information
Indicator 6.d.3
Integrate quotations from texts into the grammar of the paragraphs

Benchmark 6.e
Elaborate Ideas Clearly through Word Choice and Vivid Description
Indicator 6.e.1
Use precise language to convey a vivid picture
Indicator 6.e.2
Develop the topic with appropriate information, details, and examples
Indicator 6.e.3
Apply narrative techniques to develop experiences or characters
Indicator 6.e.4
Use evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis

Benchmark 6.f
Arrange Paragraphs into a Logical Progression
Indicator 6.f.1
Arrange paragraphs into a logical progression

Benchmark 6.g
Use Transitions between Paragraphs and Ideas
Indicator 6.g.1
Use appropriate words, phrases to signal organizational pattern, etc.
Indicator 6.g.2
Use transitional phrases to clarify the interrelationship of ideas

Benchmark 6.h
Revise Writing for Clarity of Content, Accuracy, Depth of Information
Indicator 6.h.1
Revise writing for clarity, content, intended audience, etc.
Indicator 6.h.2
Maintain a formal style and objective tone in academic writing
Indicator 6.h.3
Collaborate to improve writing through small, large group discussions
Indicator 6.h.4
Reflect on personal progress toward established goals

Benchmark 6.i
Use Computer Technology to Plan, Draft, Revise, Edit, Publish Writing
Indicator 6.i.1
Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, publish writing
Standard 7

Benchmark 7.a
Use and Apply Rules for the Parts of a Sentence
Indicator 7.a.1
Apply rules for using subjects and verbs in sentence development
Indicator 7.a.2
Apply rules for using direct, indirect objects in sentence development
Indicator 7.a.3
Apply rules for using predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives
Indicator 7.a.4
Apply rules for using coordinating conjunctions

Benchmark 7.b
Use Parallel Structures Across Sentences and Paragraphs
Indicator 7.b.1
Use parallel structures across sentences and paragraphs

Benchmark 7.c
Use Appositives, Main Clauses, and Subordinate Clauses
Indicator 7.c.1
Use appositives
Indicator 7.c.2
Use main clauses and subordinate clauses
Indicator 7.c.3
Use various types of phrases, clauses to convey meanings, add variety

Benchmark 7.d
Distinguish, Divide Main, Subordinate Clauses with Commas, Semicolons
Indicator 7.d.1
Distinguish, divide main, subordinate clauses with commas, semicolons
Indicator 7.d.2
Use a semicolon or a conjunctive adverb to link independent clauses

Benchmark 7.e
Distinguish between Active and Passive Voice
Indicator 7.e.1
Differentiate between active, passive voice to create a desired effect

Benchmark 7.f
Proofread and Edit Writing for Intended Audience and Purpose
Indicator 7.f.1
Proofread and edit writing for intended audience and purpose
Indicator 7.f.2
Distinguish among comma, semicolon, and colon use
Indicator 7.f.3
Proofread and edit writing for grammar, capitalization, spelling, etc.
Indicator 7.f.4
Use peer- and self-evaluation to edit writing
Indicator 7.f.5
Reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of one's own writing
Standard 8

Benchmark 8.a
Use Technology to Research, Organize, Evaluate, and Communicate Info.
Indicator 8.a.1
Use Internet resources, electronic databases, etc. to access info.
Indicator 8.a.2
Use Internet resources, electronic databases, etc. to organize info.
Indicator 8.a.3
Use Internet resources, electronic databases, etc. to present info.
Indicator 8.a.4
Embed information accessed electronically in a research document
Indicator 8.a.5
Synthesize information from a variety of electronic sources

Benchmark 8.b
Narrow the Focus of a Search
Indicator 8.b.1
Focus the topic; identify audience, purpose, and useful search terms

Benchmark 8.c
Find, Evaluate, Select Appropriate Sources to Access Information, etc.
Indicator 8.c.1
Select resources based on reliability, accuracy, and relevance
Indicator 8.c.2
Access information from a variety of print and non-print sources
Indicator 8.c.3
Distinguish between primary and secondary sources

Benchmark 8.d
Verify the Validity and Accuracy of All Information
Indicator 8.d.1
Verify the validity and accuracy of information
Indicator 8.d.2
Differentiate between reliable and unreliable resources
Indicator 8.d.3
Evaluate the usefulness of information to the research product

Benchmark 8.e
Make Sense of Information Gathered from Diverse Sources
Indicator 8.e.1
Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources

Benchmark 8.f
Credit the Sources of Quoted, Paraphrased, and Summarized Ideas
Indicator 8.f.1
Credit the sources of quoted, paraphrased, and summarized ideas

Benchmark 8.g
Cite Sources of Information Using MLA or APA
Indicator 8.g.1
Use a style sheet, such as MLA or APA, to cite sources

Benchmark 8.h
Define Plagiarism and Follow Guidelines for Using Information
Indicator 8.h.1
Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism
Indicator 8.h.2
Understand that plagiarism is presenting someone else's ideas as own
Indicator 8.h.3
Distinguish one's ideas from information created by others
Indicator 8.h.4
Use quotation marks when someone else's exact words are quoted
Indicator 8.h.5
Cite sources to give credit to the author of an original work
Indicator 8.h.6
Understand the consequences of plagiarism in college and careers

Essential - Standard, benchmark, or indicator from the VDOE Standards of Learning document. In the absence of VDOE standards for a given course, content subject to testing such as AP and IB can be labeled Essential.
Expected - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies to provide a context, a bridge, or an enhancement to the Essential SBIs.
Extended - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies generally used to differentiate instruction for advanced learners (Honors/GT)