Language Arts/English Curriculum
  English 9
 

Students read and analyze a variety of literary and nonfiction texts, exploring the characteristics of different forms and the techniques authors use to achieve their intended purpose. Language study extends students’ vocabulary through learning about connotations, denotations, word origins, and structures. Students apply their understanding of grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing to varied and frequent writing assignments. Through narrative, expository, and persuasive writings, students build on their understanding of writing as a process of prewriting, drafting, revising, and publishing. In the research process, students find, evaluate, and select appropriate sources to access information to create a research product. They also develop communication skills through listening to and practicing oral presentations. 

 

(This is a Standards of Learning aligned course, which is tested in 11th grade.)

Last Updated: 08/17/12 10:15 AM
 
 
ELA.G9
Standard 1
  MAKE PLANNED ORAL PRESENTATIONS INDEPENDENTLY AND IN SMALL GROUPS
 

Benchmark 1.a
Include Definitions to Increase Clarity
 
Indicator 1.a.1
Define technical and specialized language to increase clarity
 

Benchmark 1.b
Use Relevant Details to Support Main Ideas
 
Indicator 1.b.1
Incorporate details to support the main ideas of oral presentations
 
Indicator 1.b.2
Evaluate information sources for reliability, accuracy, and relevance
 

Benchmark 1.c
Illustrate Main Ideas Through Anecdotes and Examples
 
Indicator 1.c.1
Support main ideas of oral presentations through examples
 
Indicator 1.c.2
Choose anecdotes, examples that are relevant, meaningful to audience
 

Benchmark 1.d
Use Language Appropriate to Topic, Audience, and Purpose
 
Indicator 1.d.1
Use grammar, vocab appropriate for situation, topic, audience, purpose
 
Indicator 1.d.2
Organize presentation appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose
 

Benchmark 1.e
Use Verbal and Nonverbal Techniques for Presentation
 
Indicator 1.e.1
Use verbal techniques
 
Indicator 1.e.2
Use nonverbal techniques
 
Indicator 1.e.3
Keep eye contact, adjust volume, be aware of posture, gestures, etc.
 
Indicator 1.e.4
Use visual aids to support the content of the presentation
 

Benchmark 1.f
Evaluate Impact and Purpose of Presentation
 
Indicator 1.f.1
Assess the impact of presentations using a rubric or checklist
 
Indicator 1.f.2
Analyze, critique relationship among purpose, audience, and content
 
Indicator 1.f.3
Analyze, critique the effectiveness of speaker's voice, gestures, etc.
 
Indicator 1.f.4
Use group feedback to revise future presentations
 

Benchmark 1.g
Cite Information Sources
 
Indicator 1.g.1
Give credit to sources by citing authors, researchers, titles, etc.
 
Indicator 1.g.2
Cite sources according to proper MLA or APA format
 

Benchmark 1.h
Give Impromptu Responses to Questions About Presentations
 
Indicator 1.h.1
Respond to questions about oral presentations
 

Benchmark 1.i
Give, Follow Spoken Directions to Perform Tasks, Solve Problems, etc.
 
Indicator 1.i.1
Give, follow spoken directions to perform tasks, solve problems, etc.
 
Indicator 1.i.2
Engage others in a conversation by posing and responding to questions
 

Benchmark 1.j
Use a Variety of Strategies to Listen Actively
 
Indicator 1.j.1
Listen actively, look at speaker, show attentiveness, give feedback
 

Benchmark 1.k
Summarize, Evaluate Information Presented Orally by Others
 
Indicator 1.k.1
Summarize, paraphrase others to show attentiveness; provide evaluation
 

Benchmark 1.l
Assume Shared Responsibility for Collaborative Work
 
Indicator 1.l.1
Collaborate to set rules for group presentations and discussions
 
Indicator 1.l.2
Exercise flexibility to make compromises to accomplish a goal
 
Indicator 1.l.3
Define a team goal and work toward its mastery
 
Indicator 1.l.4
Maintain collaboration by acknowledging and respecting all ideas
 
Indicator 1.l.5
Demonstrate respect for ideas acknowledging differing points of view
 
Indicator 1.l.6
Come to agreement by seeking consensus
 
Indicator 1.l.7
Develop speaking, listening skills through collaboration, discussion
 
Indicator 1.l.8
Collaborate with others to exchange ideas, solve problems, etc.
 
ELA.G9
Standard 2
  PRODUCE, ANALYZE, EVALUATE AUDITORY, VISUAL, WRITTEN MEDIA MESSAGES
 

Benchmark 2.a
Analyze and Interpret Special Effects Used in Media Messages
 
Indicator 2.a.1
Evaluate how special effects in a media message persuade viewers
 

Benchmark 2.b
Determine the Purpose of the Media Message and Its Effect on Audience
 
Indicator 2.b.1
Determine the purpose of the media message
 
Indicator 2.b.2
Identify and evaluate word choice in the media
 
Indicator 2.b.3
Comprehend persuasive language, connotations to convey viewpoint, bias
 
Indicator 2.b.4
Analyze how persuasive techniques change viewers' behavior
 
Indicator 2.b.5
Describe effect of persuasive messages in media on the audience
 
Indicator 2.b.6
Reflect on elements of media messages that impact own behaviors, etc.
 

Benchmark 2.c
Describe Relationships in Mass Media Coverage, Public Opinion Trends
 
Indicator 2.c.1
Identify public opinion trends and possible causes
 

Benchmark 2.d
Evaluate Sources for Relationships Between Intent and Factual Content
 
Indicator 2.d.1
Evaluate sources for relationships between intent and factual content
 
Indicator 2.d.2
Identify and analyze sources and viewpoints in the media
 
Indicator 2.d.3
Analyze information in the media and distinguish fact and opinion
 

Benchmark 2.e
Monitor, Analyze, and Use Multiple Streams of Simultaneous Information
 
Indicator 2.e.1
Analyze information from many different print and electronic sources
 
Indicator 2.e.2
Investigate the use of bias and viewpoints in media
 
Indicator 2.e.3
Create, publish media messages with different purposes
 
Indicator 2.e.4
Analyze how an audience creates meaning through synthesis of messages
 
ELA.G9
Standard 3
  APPLY KNOWLEDGE OF WORD ORIGINS, ETC. TO EXTEND VOCABULARY
 

Benchmark 3.a
Use Structural Analysis of Roots, Affixes, etc. to Understand Words
 
Indicator 3.a.1
Use roots or affixes to determine the meanings of complex words
 
Indicator 3.a.2
Use synonyms and antonyms to understand the meaning of complex words
 
Indicator 3.a.3
Use cognates to understand the meaning of complex words
 

Benchmark 3.b
Use Context, Structure, etc. to Determine Meanings of Words, Phrases
 
Indicator 3.b.1
Use context as a clue to the meanings of a word or phrase
 
Indicator 3.b.2
Use word structure to analyze and relate words
 
Indicator 3.b.3
Demonstrate an understanding of connotations in word meaning
 
Indicator 3.b.4
Demonstrate an understanding of word relationships in word meaning
 
Indicator 3.b.5
Use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings, etc.
 

Benchmark 3.c
Discriminate Between Connotative and Denotative Meanings
 
Indicator 3.c.1
Analyze and interpret connotations of words with similar denotations
 
Indicator 3.c.2
Demonstrate understanding of word relationships, nuances in meaning
 
Indicator 3.c.3
Connect how author's purpose affects the connotations of words
 

Benchmark 3.d
Identify the Meaning of Common Idioms
 
Indicator 3.d.1
Demonstrate an understanding of idioms
 

Benchmark 3.e
Identify Literary, Classical Allusions and Figurative Language in Text
 
Indicator 3.e.1
Use prior knowledge and other study to identify meaning of allusions
 
Indicator 3.e.2
Demonstrate an understanding of figurative language in word meanings
 
Indicator 3.e.3
Interpret figures of speech in context and analyze their roles in text
 
Indicator 3.e.4
Evaluate use of figurative language to determine how it enriches text
 

Benchmark 3.f
Extend Vocabulary through Speaking, Reading, and Writing
 
Indicator 3.f.1
Extend vocabulary through speaking, reading, and writing
 
Indicator 3.f.2
Consult reference materials to find the pronunciation, meaning, etc.
 

Benchmark 3.g
Use Knowledge of Language to Comprehend Texts
 
Indicator 3.g.1
Use knowledge of language to comprehend texts
 
Indicator 3.g.2
Analyze how word etymology impacts contemporary usage
 
ELA.G9
Standard 4
  READ, COMPREHEND, AND ANALYZE A VARIETY OF LITERARY TEXTS
 

Benchmark 4.a
Identify Author's Main Idea and Purpose
 
Indicator 4.a.1
Identify author's main idea and purpose
 

Benchmark 4.b
Summarize Text Relating Supporting Details
 
Indicator 4.b.1
Identify supporting details
 
Indicator 4.b.2
Summarize the text relating the supporting details
 

Benchmark 4.c
Identify the Characteristics That Distinguish Literary Forms
 
Indicator 4.c.1
Identify the characteristics that distinguish literary forms
 
Indicator 4.c.2
Identify and analyze elements of dramatic literature
 
Indicator 4.c.3
Identify and analyze the characteristics of narratives
 
Indicator 4.c.4
Identify and analyze the characteristics of poetry
 
Indicator 4.c.5
Identify, analyze the characteristics of essays, narrative nonfiction
 

Benchmark 4.d
Use Literary Terms in Describing and Analyzing Sections
 
Indicator 4.d.1
Use literary terms in describing and analyzing selections
 
Indicator 4.d.2
Use academic language when describing, analyzing literary selections
 

Benchmark 4.e
Explain the Relationship Among Elements of Literature
 
Indicator 4.e.1
Explain the relationship among elements of literature
 
Indicator 4.e.2
Analyze how characters develop, interact, advance plot, develop theme
 
Indicator 4.e.3
Analyze how authors create multilayered characters
 
Indicator 4.e.4
Analyze how the plot structures advance the action in literature
 
Indicator 4.e.5
Determine theme of a text and analyze its development throughout text
 
Indicator 4.e.6
Describe how stage directions help the reader understand the play
 

Benchmark 4.f
Compare, Contrast How Literary Devices Convey Message, Elicit Emotion
 
Indicator 4.f.1
Identify sound devices
 
Indicator 4.f.2
Compare, contrast sound devices to convey a message, elicit emotion
 
Indicator 4.f.3
Compare, contrast types of figurative language, other literary devices
 
Indicator 4.f.4
Reflect on one's own emotional response to a piece of literature
 

Benchmark 4.g
Analyze the Cultural or Social Function of a Literary Text
 
Indicator 4.g.1
Analyze the cultural or social function of a literary text
 

Benchmark 4.h
Explain Relationship Between the Author's Style and Literary Effect
 
Indicator 4.h.1
Explain relationship between the author's style literary effect
 
Indicator 4.h.2
Apply elements of other authors' styles to create an original work
 

Benchmark 4.i
Explain Influence of Historical Context on Form, Style, Point of View
 
Indicator 4.i.1
Explain influence of historical context on form, style, point of view
 
Indicator 4.i.2
Analyze a point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work
 
Indicator 4.i.3
Analyze literature for historical information
 

Benchmark 4.j
Compare, Contrast Author's Use of Literary Elements among Genres
 
Indicator 4.j.1
Compare, contrast author's use of literary elements among genres
 
Indicator 4.j.2
Identify, analyze author's use of structuring techniques in literature
 
Indicator 4.j.3
Analyze techniques used by authors to convey info about a character
 
Indicator 4.j.4
Analyze character types
 
Indicator 4.j.5
Compare and contrast subject or key scene in two different media
 

Benchmark 4.k
Analyze How Word Choice and Syntax Achieve Effects and Support Purpose
 
Indicator 4.k.1
Analyze how word choice and syntax achieve effects and support purpose
 
Indicator 4.k.2
Identify, analyze author's use of diction, syntax to convey ideas
 

Benchmark 4.l
Make Predictions/Inferences, Draw Conclusions, Connect Prior Knowledge
 
Indicator 4.l.1
Make predictions to support reading comprehension
 
Indicator 4.l.2
Make inferences to support reading comprehension
 
Indicator 4.l.3
Draw conclusions to support reading comprehension
 
Indicator 4.l.4
Connect prior knowledge to support reading comprehension
 

Benchmark 4.m
Use Reading Strategies to Monitor Comprehension
 
Indicator 4.m.1
Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension
 
ELA.G9
Standard 5
  READ AND ANALYZE A VARIETY OF NONFICTION TEXTS
 

Benchmark 5.a
Recognize Author's Intended Purpose for Writing and Identify Main Idea
 
Indicator 5.a.1
Explain author's purpose in informational text
 
Indicator 5.a.2
Explain author's purpose in functional text
 
Indicator 5.a.3
Identify and infer the main idea of complex informational texts
 
Indicator 5.a.4
Compare purpose, main idea of fiction, nonfiction on same topic
 

Benchmark 5.b
Summarize Text Relating Supporting Details
 
Indicator 5.b.1
Summarize details that support the main idea of informational text
 

Benchmark 5.c
Use Text Structures to Locate Information, Gain Meaning from Texts
 
Indicator 5.c.1
Examine text structures to comprehend and analyze
 
Indicator 5.c.2
Demonstrate the use of text features to locate information
 

Benchmark 5.d
Identify Characteristics of Expository, Technical, Persuasive Texts
 
Indicator 5.d.1
Identify characteristics of expository texts
 
Indicator 5.d.2
Identify characteristics of technical texts
 
Indicator 5.d.3
Identify characteristics of persuasive texts
 
Indicator 5.d.4
Compare characteristics of texts from different genres
 

Benchmark 5.e
Identify Position/Argument to be Confirmed, Disproved, or Modified
 
Indicator 5.e.1
Identify an author's position/argument within informational text
 
Indicator 5.e.2
Analyze multiple texts with conflicting information on the same topic
 

Benchmark 5.f
Evaluate Clarity, Accuracy of Information Found in Informational Texts
 
Indicator 5.f.1
Evaluate clarity, accuracy of information found in informational texts
 
Indicator 5.f.2
Evaluate clarity, accuracy of information found in functional texts
 

Benchmark 5.g
Analyze and Synthesize Information to Solve Problems, etc.
 
Indicator 5.g.1
Analyze and synthesize information to solve problems, etc.
 

Benchmark 5.h
Draw Conclusions, Make Inferences on Explicit and Implied Information
 
Indicator 5.h.1
Draw conclusions, make inferences from complex informational texts
 
Indicator 5.h.2
Explain, communicate inferences, etc. based on explicit, implied info.
 

Benchmark 5.i
Differentiate Between Fact and Opinion
 
Indicator 5.i.1
Differentiate between fact and opinion
 

Benchmark 5.j
Organize and Synthesize Information for Writings and Presentations
 
Indicator 5.j.1
Organize and synthesize information for writings and presentations
 
Indicator 5.j.2
Synthesize information on a topic of personal or global significance
 

Benchmark 5.k
Use Reading Strategies to Monitor Comprehension
 
Indicator 5.k.1
Use a variety of reading strategies to self-monitor comprehension
 
ELA.G9
Standard 6
  DEVELOP NARRATIVE, EXPOSITORY, AND INFORMATIONAL WRITINGS
 

Benchmark 6.a
Generate, Gather, and Organize Ideas for Writing
 
Indicator 6.a.1
Generate and gather ideas for writing
 
Indicator 6.a.2
Use prewriting strategies and organize writing
 

Benchmark 6.b
Plan, Organize Writing to Address a Specific Audience and Purpose
 
Indicator 6.b.1
Plan and develop writing with an appropriate audience and purpose
 
Indicator 6.b.2
Plan and develop organized written products
 
Indicator 6.b.3
Plan writing that reflects an appropriate point of view
 
Indicator 6.b.4
Practice writing for shorter and extended time frames
 

Benchmark 6.c
Communicate Clearly Purpose of the Writing Using a Thesis Statement
 
Indicator 6.c.1
Demonstrate writing purpose as narrative, persuasive, expository, etc.
 
Indicator 6.c.2
Write a clear, focused thesis that addresses the purpose of writing
 
Indicator 6.c.3
Provide an engaging introduction and a clear thesis statement
 
Indicator 6.c.4
Write to an authentic audience for the chosen topic
 

Benchmark 6.d
Write Clear, Varied Sentences Using Specific Vocabulary, Information
 
Indicator 6.d.1
Write clear, varied sentences, and increase use of embedded clauses
 
Indicator 6.d.2
Use specific vocabulary and information
 
Indicator 6.d.3
Integrate quotations from texts into the grammar of the paragraphs
 

Benchmark 6.e
Elaborate Ideas Clearly through Word Choice and Vivid Description
 
Indicator 6.e.1
Use precise language to convey a vivid picture
 
Indicator 6.e.2
Develop the topic with appropriate information, details, and examples
 
Indicator 6.e.3
Apply narrative techniques to develop experiences or characters
 
Indicator 6.e.4
Use evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis
 

Benchmark 6.f
Arrange Paragraphs into a Logical Progression
 
Indicator 6.f.1
Arrange paragraphs into a logical progression
 

Benchmark 6.g
Use Transitions between Paragraphs and Ideas
 
Indicator 6.g.1
Use appropriate words, phrases to signal organizational pattern, etc.
 
Indicator 6.g.2
Use transitional phrases to clarify the interrelationship of ideas
 

Benchmark 6.h
Revise Writing for Clarity of Content, Accuracy, Depth of Information
 
Indicator 6.h.1
Revise writing for clarity, content, intended audience, etc.
 
Indicator 6.h.2
Maintain a formal style and objective tone in academic writing
 
Indicator 6.h.3
Collaborate to improve writing through small, large group discussions
 
Indicator 6.h.4
Reflect on personal progress toward established goals
 

Benchmark 6.i
Use Computer Technology to Plan, Draft, Revise, Edit, Publish Writing
 
Indicator 6.i.1
Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, publish writing
 
ELA.G9
Standard 7
  EDIT WRITING FOR CORRECT GRAMMAR, CAPITALIZATION, ETC.
 

Benchmark 7.a
Use and Apply Rules for the Parts of a Sentence
 
Indicator 7.a.1
Apply rules for using subjects and verbs in sentence development
 
Indicator 7.a.2
Apply rules for using direct, indirect objects in sentence development
 
Indicator 7.a.3
Apply rules for using predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives
 
Indicator 7.a.4
Apply rules for using coordinating conjunctions
 

Benchmark 7.b
Use Parallel Structures Across Sentences and Paragraphs
 
Indicator 7.b.1
Use parallel structures across sentences and paragraphs
 

Benchmark 7.c
Use Appositives, Main Clauses, and Subordinate Clauses
 
Indicator 7.c.1
Use appositives
 
Indicator 7.c.2
Use main clauses and subordinate clauses
 
Indicator 7.c.3
Use various types of phrases, clauses to convey meanings, add variety
 

Benchmark 7.d
Distinguish, Divide Main, Subordinate Clauses with Commas, Semicolons
 
Indicator 7.d.1
Distinguish, divide main, subordinate clauses with commas, semicolons
 
Indicator 7.d.2
Use a semicolon or a conjunctive adverb to link independent clauses
 

Benchmark 7.e
Distinguish between Active and Passive Voice
 
Indicator 7.e.1
Differentiate between active, passive voice to create a desired effect
 

Benchmark 7.f
Proofread and Edit Writing for Intended Audience and Purpose
 
Indicator 7.f.1
Proofread and edit writing for intended audience and purpose
 
Indicator 7.f.2
Distinguish among comma, semicolon, and colon use
 
Indicator 7.f.3
Proofread and edit writing for grammar, capitalization, spelling, etc.
 
Indicator 7.f.4
Use peer- and self-evaluation to edit writing
 
Indicator 7.f.5
Reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of one's own writing
 
ELA.G9
Standard 8
  USE PRINT, ONLINE RESOURCES, ETC. TO ACCESS INFORMATION
 

Benchmark 8.a
Use Technology to Research, Organize, Evaluate, and Communicate Info.
 
Indicator 8.a.1
Use Internet resources, electronic databases, etc. to access info.
 
Indicator 8.a.2
Use Internet resources, electronic databases, etc. to organize info.
 
Indicator 8.a.3
Use Internet resources, electronic databases, etc. to present info.
 
Indicator 8.a.4
Embed information accessed electronically in a research document
 
Indicator 8.a.5
Synthesize information from a variety of electronic sources
 

Benchmark 8.b
Narrow the Focus of a Search
 
Indicator 8.b.1
Focus the topic; identify audience, purpose, and useful search terms
 

Benchmark 8.c
Find, Evaluate, Select Appropriate Sources to Access Information, etc.
 
Indicator 8.c.1
Select resources based on reliability, accuracy, and relevance
 
Indicator 8.c.2
Access information from a variety of print and non-print sources
 
Indicator 8.c.3
Distinguish between primary and secondary sources
 

Benchmark 8.d
Verify the Validity and Accuracy of All Information
 
Indicator 8.d.1
Verify the validity and accuracy of information
 
Indicator 8.d.2
Differentiate between reliable and unreliable resources
 
Indicator 8.d.3
Evaluate the usefulness of information to the research product
 

Benchmark 8.e
Make Sense of Information Gathered from Diverse Sources
 
Indicator 8.e.1
Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources
 

Benchmark 8.f
Credit the Sources of Quoted, Paraphrased, and Summarized Ideas
 
Indicator 8.f.1
Credit the sources of quoted, paraphrased, and summarized ideas
 

Benchmark 8.g
Cite Sources of Information Using MLA or APA
 
Indicator 8.g.1
Use a style sheet, such as MLA or APA, to cite sources
 

Benchmark 8.h
Define Plagiarism and Follow Guidelines for Using Information
 
Indicator 8.h.1
Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism
 
Indicator 8.h.2
Understand that plagiarism is presenting someone else's ideas as own
 
Indicator 8.h.3
Distinguish one's ideas from information created by others
 
Indicator 8.h.4
Use quotation marks when someone else's exact words are quoted
 
Indicator 8.h.5
Cite sources to give credit to the author of an original work
 
Indicator 8.h.6
Understand the consequences of plagiarism in college and careers


Essential - Standard, benchmark, or indicator from the VDOE Standards of Learning document. In the absence of VDOE standards for a given course, content subject to testing such as AP and IB can be labeled Essential.
Expected - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies to provide a context, a bridge, or an enhancement to the Essential SBIs.
Extended - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies generally used to differentiate instruction for advanced learners (Honors/GT)