Language Arts/English Curriculum
  English 12

Students read and analyze a variety of literary texts, recognizing major forms and their stylistic elements. Using nonfiction texts, students will analyze and synthesize information to solve problems. Language study expands students' general and specialized vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and viewing. Writing includes the production of informational, expository, and persuasive/argumentative papers, logically organized demonstrating knowledgeable judgments, and effective conclusions. They also apply their oral communication skills to craft formal oral presentations and their listening skills to analyze the relationships among purpose, audience and content of presentations.

Last Updated: 08/17/12 10:20 AM
Standard 1

Benchmark 1.a
Choose the Purpose of the Presentation
Indicator 1.a.1
Choose the purpose of the presentation
Indicator 1.a.2
Recognize major purposes of speeches

Benchmark 1.b
Choose Language Based on Audience, Topic, and Purpose
Indicator 1.b.1
Choose language based on audience, topic, and purpose
Indicator 1.b.2
Use effective delivery created through combination of rhetoric, etc.
Indicator 1.b.3
Present evidence clearly and convincingly
Indicator 1.b.4
Make oral language choices based on prediction of audience response

Benchmark 1.c
Use Details, Illustrations, Statistics, etc. to Support Presentation
Indicator 1.c.1
Organize and develop a speech
Indicator 1.c.2
Develop content through inclusion of examples, illustrations, etc.
Indicator 1.c.3
Make 5- to 10- minute presentation alone and/or as part of a group

Benchmark 1.d
Use Media, Technology Skills, etc. to Create and Support Presentations
Indicator 1.d.1
Use media, technology skills, etc. to create and support presentations
Indicator 1.d.2
Use effective visual aids and/or technology to support presentations

Benchmark 1.e
Use Correct Language Appropriate to Audience, Topic, and Purpose
Indicator 1.e.1
Use grammatically correct language and appropriate vocabulary

Benchmark 1.f
Collaborate and Report on Small-Group Learning Activities
Indicator 1.f.1
Work together to establish group goals, define individual roles, etc.
Indicator 1.f.2
Collaborate to exchange ideas, make decisions, solve problems, etc.
Indicator 1.f.3
Work effectively with diverse teams to accomplish a common goal

Benchmark 1.g
Evaluate Formal Presentations
Indicator 1.g.1
Evaluate a formal presentation by analyzing effectiveness of speaker
Indicator 1.g.2
Evaluate relationships among topic, audience, purpose of presentations

Benchmark 1.h
Use a Variety of Listening Strategies
Indicator 1.h.1
Listen to, and critique relationships among purpose, audience, content
Indicator 1.h.2
Monitor audience feedback, etc. to adjust delivery and content

Benchmark 1.i
Critique Effectiveness of Presentations
Indicator 1.i.1
Analyze the effectiveness of presentation based on audience response
Standard 2

Benchmark 2.a
Evaluate Sources for Relationships Among Intent, Facts, and Opinions
Indicator 2.a.1
Evaluate media messages for content, intent, impact, and effectiveness
Indicator 2.a.2
Identify fact and opinion and how they relate to purpose and audience
Indicator 2.a.3
Understand the difference between objectivity and subjectivity
Indicator 2.a.4
Organize knowledge and display learning using various media

Benchmark 2.b
Determine the Author's Purpose and Intended Effect on the Audience
Indicator 2.b.1
Determine the author's purpose; distinguish fact from opinion and bias
Indicator 2.b.2
Analyze how media reach the targeted audience for specific purposes
Indicator 2.b.3
Evaluate the purposeful use of persuasive language to convey viewpoint
Standard 3

Benchmark 3.a
Use Structural Analysis of Roots, Affixes, etc. to Understand Words
Indicator 3.a.1
Use roots or affixes to determine the meanings of complex words
Indicator 3.a.2
Use synonyms and antonyms to understand complex words
Indicator 3.a.3
Use cognates to understand complex words

Benchmark 3.b
Use Context, Structure, etc. to Determine Meanings of Words, Phrases
Indicator 3.b.1
Use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase
Indicator 3.b.2
Use word structure to analyze and relate words
Indicator 3.b.3
Demonstrate an understanding of connotations in word meanings
Indicator 3.b.4
Demonstrate an understanding of word relationships in word meanings
Indicator 3.b.5
Use patterns of word changes that indicate different meaning, etc.

Benchmark 3.c
Discriminate Between Connotative and Denotative Meanings
Indicator 3.c.1
Analyze and interpret connotations of words with similar denotations
Indicator 3.c.2
Demonstrate understanding of word relationships, nuances in meaning
Indicator 3.c.3
Connect how author's purpose affects the connotations of words

Benchmark 3.d
Identify Meaning of Common Idioms, Literary and Classical Allusions
Indicator 3.d.1
Demonstrate an understanding of idioms
Indicator 3.d.2
Use prior knowledge and other study to identify meaning of allusions
Indicator 3.d.3
Demonstrate an understanding of figurative language in word meanings
Indicator 3.d.4
Interpret figures of speech in context and analyze their roles in text

Benchmark 3.e
Expand Vocabulary through Speaking, Reading, and Writing
Indicator 3.e.1
Expand vocabulary through speaking, reading, and writing
Indicator 3.e.2
Consult reference materials to find pronunciation, meaning, etc.

Benchmark 3.f
Use Knowledge of Language to Comprehend Texts
Indicator 3.f.1
Use knowledge of language to comprehend texts
Indicator 3.f.2
Analyze how word etymology impacts contemporary usage
Standard 4

Benchmark 4.a
Compare, Contrast the Development of British Lit in Historical Context
Indicator 4.a.1
Analyze how author's attitudes, etc. relate to larger contexts

Benchmark 4.b
Recognize Major Literary Forms and Their Elements
Indicator 4.b.1
Recognize major literary forms and their elements
Indicator 4.b.2
Use reading strategies to improve reading comprehension
Indicator 4.b.3
Evaluate how word choice, tone, etc. shape intended meaning of text
Indicator 4.b.4
Compare effect of literary elements among a variety of texts, genres

Benchmark 4.c
Recognize the Characteristics of Major Chronological Eras
Indicator 4.c.1
Identify the literary characteristics of specific eras

Benchmark 4.d
Relate Literary Works, Authors to Major Themes, Issues of Their Eras
Indicator 4.d.1
Recognize major themes and issues in literature

Benchmark 4.e
Analyze the Social and Cultural Function of British Literature
Indicator 4.e.1
Analyze how British literature provides social commentary

Benchmark 4.f
Explain How the Sound of a Poem Supports the Subject, Mood, and Theme
Indicator 4.f.1
Explain how the sound of a poem supports the subject, mood, and theme
Indicator 4.f.2
Explain how the choice of words in a poem creates tone
Indicator 4.f.3
Explain how reader's response to poem is manipulated by imagery, etc.

Benchmark 4.g
Compare, Contrast Traditional, Contemporary Poems from Many Cultures
Indicator 4.g.1
Compare, contrast traditional, contemporary poems from many cultures

Benchmark 4.h
Analyze How Dramatic Conventions Contribute to Theme and Effect
Indicator 4.h.1
Analyze how dramatic conventions contribute to theme and effect
Indicator 4.h.2
Explain how dramatist uses dialogue to reveal theme
Indicator 4.h.3
Distinguish between what is stated and what is intended in a text

Benchmark 4.i
Compare and Contrast Dramatic Elements of Plays from Many Cultures
Indicator 4.i.1
Compare, contrast traditional, contemporary drama from many cultures
Indicator 4.i.2
Compare, contrast dramatic structure of plays from various cultures
Indicator 4.i.3
Analyze a subject or a key scene in two different media
Standard 5

Benchmark 5.a
Generate and Respond to Questions throughout the Reading Process
Indicator 5.a.1
Use critical thinking questions to activate prior knowledge, etc.
Indicator 5.a.2
Use reading strategies to improve comprehension, etc.

Benchmark 5.b
Analyze and Synthesize Information to Solve Problems, etc.
Indicator 5.b.1
Analyze and synthesize information to solve problems, etc.
Indicator 5.b.2
Analyze print and Web-based informational and technical texts
Indicator 5.b.3
Examine the format of text as an aid in analyzing, determining content
Indicator 5.b.4
Recognize and apply specialized informational vocabulary

Benchmark 5.c
Analyze Two or More Texts Addressing the Same Topic
Indicator 5.c.1
Analyze how two or more texts develop and treat the same idea
Indicator 5.c.2
Analyze how logical arguments could reach conflicting conclusions
Indicator 5.c.3
Compare and contrast how multiple texts treat similar ideas
Indicator 5.c.4
Analyze how authors use rhetorical strategies and techniques

Benchmark 5.d
Analyze Use of Ambiguity, Contradiction, Paradox, Irony, etc.
Indicator 5.d.1
Analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, etc.
Indicator 5.d.2
Determine author's point of view, etc. in text with effective rhetoric
Indicator 5.d.3
Recognize persuasive techniques
Indicator 5.d.4
Analyze how authors use ethos, logos, and pathos

Benchmark 5.e
Identify False Premises in Persuasive Writing
Indicator 5.e.1
Identify false premises in persuasive writing
Indicator 5.e.2
Analyze false premises that intentionally manipulate audiences
Indicator 5.e.3
Evaluate the relevance and quality of evidence used to support a claim

Benchmark 5.f
Draw Conclusions, Make Inferences on Explicit and Implied Information
Indicator 5.f.1
Draw conclusions, make inferences on explicit and implied information
Indicator 5.f.2
Make references to texts to verify conclusions, support inferences
Indicator 5.f.3
Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events
Standard 6

Benchmark 6.a
Generate, Gather, and Organize Ideas for Writing
Indicator 6.a.1
Generate expository writings
Indicator 6.a.2
Develop technical writings
Indicator 6.a.3
Develop analytical essays
Indicator 6.a.4
Develop persuasive/argumentative writings
Indicator 6.a.5
Complete employment forms through simulations, real-life opportunities
Indicator 6.a.6
Complete applications, essays, and resumes for college admission
Indicator 6.a.7
Write routinely over extended and shorter time frames
Indicator 6.a.8
Evaluate good writing to identify and apply effective techniques

Benchmark 6.b
Produce Arguments in Writing That Develop a Thesis, etc.
Indicator 6.b.1
Construct arguments that provide precise, significant, logical claims
Indicator 6.b.2
Develop a thesis that demonstrates clear and knowledgeable judgments
Indicator 6.b.3
Develop claim(s) and counterclaims thoroughly with relevant evidence
Indicator 6.b.4
Focus paragraphs by using a variety of strategic techniques
Indicator 6.b.5
Develop ideas in a logical sequence
Indicator 6.b.6
Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text
Indicator 6.b.7
Create cohesion, clarify relationships among reasons, evidence, etc.
Indicator 6.b.8
Use transition words and phrases to signal progression of ideas
Indicator 6.b.9
Provide a clear and effective conclusion

Benchmark 6.c
Clarify and Defend a Position with Precise and Relevant Evidence
Indicator 6.c.1
Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence
Indicator 6.c.2
Elaborate for clarity and accuracy developing the topic fully
Indicator 6.c.3
Use a range of strategies to elaborate and persuade

Benchmark 6.d
Adapt Content, Vocabulary, Voice, and Tone to Audience, Purpose, etc.
Indicator 6.d.1
Adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, etc.
Indicator 6.d.2
Establish and maintain a style and tone
Indicator 6.d.3
Write clear and varied sentences
Indicator 6.d.4
Use wide-ranging vocabulary appropriately and effectively
Indicator 6.d.5
Craft individual style through sentence structure, tone, voice, etc.

Benchmark 6.e
Use Varied Rhetorical Strategies to Accomplish a Specific Purpose
Indicator 6.e.1
Apply persuasive rhetorical devices and techniques when appropriate

Benchmark 6.f
Create Arguments Free of Errors in Logic and Externally Supported
Indicator 6.f.1
Create arguments free of errors in logic and externally supported
Indicator 6.f.2
Recognize and avoid common logical fallacies or false premises

Benchmark 6.g
Revise Writing for Clarity of Content, Depth of Information, etc.
Indicator 6.g.1
Revise writing for depth of information and to adhere to format
Indicator 6.g.2
Reflect on the writing process and establish goals for future work
Indicator 6.g.3
Collaborate to improve writing through small, large group discussions
Indicator 6.g.4
Write, revise correspondence to workplace and higher ed. standards

Benchmark 6.h
Use Computer Technology to Plan, Draft, Revise, Edit, Publish Writing
Indicator 6.h.1
Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, publish writing
Indicator 6.h.2
Compose and revise drafts collaboratively using technology
Standard 7

Benchmark 7.a
Edit, Proofread, and Prepare Writing for Intended Audience and Purpose
Indicator 7.a.1
Edit one's own and others' work for grammar, style and tone
Indicator 7.a.2
Evaluate whether draft is effectively supported, adequately developed
Indicator 7.a.3
Assess and strengthen the quality of the writing through revision

Benchmark 7.b
Apply Grammatical Conventions to Edit Writing
Indicator 7.b.1
Apply grammatical conventions to adjust sentence, paragraph structures
Indicator 7.b.2
Observe hyphenation rules

Benchmark 7.c
Use MLA or APA Style to Punctuate and Format Direct Quotations
Indicator 7.c.1
Apply MLA or APA style to punctuate and format in-text citations
Standard 8

Benchmark 8.a
Use Technology to Research, Organize, Evaluate, Communicate Info.
Indicator 8.a.1
Utilize technology to conduct research, organize information, etc.
Indicator 8.a.2
Use technology as a tool to collaborate throughout the writing process

Benchmark 8.b
Analyze and Synthesize Information to Solve Problems, etc.
Indicator 8.b.1
Analyze and synthesize information to solve problems, etc.
Indicator 8.b.2
Identify, narrow a topic for research through a variety of strategies
Indicator 8.b.3
Evaluate, synthesize relevant information using a variety of sources
Indicator 8.b.4
Organize information into a draft
Indicator 8.b.5
Formulate a thesis that represents findings from collected information

Benchmark 8.c
Evaluate the Accuracy, Quality, and Validity of the Information
Indicator 8.c.1
Evaluate collected information by determining validity, accuracy, etc.

Benchmark 8.d
Synthesize, Present Information in a Logical Manner to Support Thesis
Indicator 8.d.1
Synthesize, present information in a logical manner to support thesis

Benchmark 8.e
Cite Sources Using a Standard Method of Documentation
Indicator 8.e.1
Cite sources to avoid plagiarism, using MLA or APA style

Benchmark 8.f
Revise Writing For Clarity, Depth of Information, etc.
Indicator 8.f.1
Revise writing for clarity, depth of information, etc.

Benchmark 8.g
Edit Writing for Correct Language, Spelling Punctuation, Syntax, etc.
Indicator 8.g.1
Edit writing for language, capitalization, spelling, syntax, etc.
Indicator 8.g.2
Collaborate with others to edit writing

Benchmark 8.h
Define Plagiarism and Follow Guidelines for Using Information
Indicator 8.h.1
Demonstrate a sophisticated understanding of the ethics of writing
Indicator 8.h.2
Understand that plagiarism is presenting someone else's ideas as own
Indicator 8.h.3
Recognize one must correctly cite sources giving credit to the author
Indicator 8.h.4
Recognized that paraphrased information must be cited
Indicator 8.h.5
Use quotation marks when someone else's exact words are quoted
Indicator 8.h.6
Understand the consequences of plagiarism in college and careers

Essential - Standard, benchmark, or indicator from the VDOE Standards of Learning document. In the absence of VDOE standards for a given course, content subject to testing such as AP and IB can be labeled Essential.
Expected - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies to provide a context, a bridge, or an enhancement to the Essential SBIs.
Extended - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies generally used to differentiate instruction for advanced learners (Honors/GT)