Language Arts/English Curriculum
  English 12
 

Students read and analyze a variety of literary texts, recognizing major forms and their stylistic elements. Using nonfiction texts, students will analyze and synthesize information to solve problems. Language study expands students' general and specialized vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and viewing. Writing includes the production of informational, expository, and persuasive/argumentative papers, logically organized demonstrating knowledgeable judgments, and effective conclusions. They also apply their oral communication skills to craft formal oral presentations and their listening skills to analyze the relationships among purpose, audience and content of presentations.

Last Updated: 08/17/12 10:20 AM
 
 
ELA.G12
Standard 1
  MAKE A FORMAL ORAL PRESENTATION
 

Benchmark 1.a
Choose the Purpose of the Presentation
 
Indicator 1.a.1
Choose the purpose of the presentation
 
Indicator 1.a.2
Recognize major purposes of speeches
 

Benchmark 1.b
Choose Language Based on Audience, Topic, and Purpose
 
Indicator 1.b.1
Choose language based on audience, topic, and purpose
 
Indicator 1.b.2
Use effective delivery created through combination of rhetoric, etc.
 
Indicator 1.b.3
Present evidence clearly and convincingly
 
Indicator 1.b.4
Make oral language choices based on prediction of audience response
 

Benchmark 1.c
Use Details, Illustrations, Statistics, etc. to Support Presentation
 
Indicator 1.c.1
Organize and develop a speech
 
Indicator 1.c.2
Develop content through inclusion of examples, illustrations, etc.
 
Indicator 1.c.3
Make 5- to 10- minute presentation alone and/or as part of a group
 

Benchmark 1.d
Use Media, Technology Skills, etc. to Create and Support Presentations
 
Indicator 1.d.1
Use media, technology skills, etc. to create and support presentations
 
Indicator 1.d.2
Use effective visual aids and/or technology to support presentations
 

Benchmark 1.e
Use Correct Language Appropriate to Audience, Topic, and Purpose
 
Indicator 1.e.1
Use grammatically correct language and appropriate vocabulary
 

Benchmark 1.f
Collaborate and Report on Small-Group Learning Activities
 
Indicator 1.f.1
Work together to establish group goals, define individual roles, etc.
 
Indicator 1.f.2
Collaborate to exchange ideas, make decisions, solve problems, etc.
 
Indicator 1.f.3
Work effectively with diverse teams to accomplish a common goal
 

Benchmark 1.g
Evaluate Formal Presentations
 
Indicator 1.g.1
Evaluate a formal presentation by analyzing effectiveness of speaker
 
Indicator 1.g.2
Evaluate relationships among topic, audience, purpose of presentations
 

Benchmark 1.h
Use a Variety of Listening Strategies
 
Indicator 1.h.1
Listen to, and critique relationships among purpose, audience, content
 
Indicator 1.h.2
Monitor audience feedback, etc. to adjust delivery and content
 

Benchmark 1.i
Critique Effectiveness of Presentations
 
Indicator 1.i.1
Analyze the effectiveness of presentation based on audience response
 
ELA.G12
Standard 2
  EXAMINE HOW MEDIA MESSAGE INFLUENCES BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS
 

Benchmark 2.a
Evaluate Sources for Relationships Among Intent, Facts, and Opinions
 
Indicator 2.a.1
Evaluate media messages for content, intent, impact, and effectiveness
 
Indicator 2.a.2
Identify fact and opinion and how they relate to purpose and audience
 
Indicator 2.a.3
Understand the difference between objectivity and subjectivity
 
Indicator 2.a.4
Organize knowledge and display learning using various media
 

Benchmark 2.b
Determine the Author's Purpose and Intended Effect on the Audience
 
Indicator 2.b.1
Determine the author's purpose; distinguish fact from opinion and bias
 
Indicator 2.b.2
Analyze how media reach the targeted audience for specific purposes
 
Indicator 2.b.3
Evaluate the purposeful use of persuasive language to convey viewpoint
 
ELA.G12
Standard 3
  EXTEND VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT IN AUTHENTIC TEXTS
 

Benchmark 3.a
Use Structural Analysis of Roots, Affixes, etc. to Understand Words
 
Indicator 3.a.1
Use roots or affixes to determine the meanings of complex words
 
Indicator 3.a.2
Use synonyms and antonyms to understand complex words
 
Indicator 3.a.3
Use cognates to understand complex words
 

Benchmark 3.b
Use Context, Structure, etc. to Determine Meanings of Words, Phrases
 
Indicator 3.b.1
Use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase
 
Indicator 3.b.2
Use word structure to analyze and relate words
 
Indicator 3.b.3
Demonstrate an understanding of connotations in word meanings
 
Indicator 3.b.4
Demonstrate an understanding of word relationships in word meanings
 
Indicator 3.b.5
Use patterns of word changes that indicate different meaning, etc.
 

Benchmark 3.c
Discriminate Between Connotative and Denotative Meanings
 
Indicator 3.c.1
Analyze and interpret connotations of words with similar denotations
 
Indicator 3.c.2
Demonstrate understanding of word relationships, nuances in meaning
 
Indicator 3.c.3
Connect how author's purpose affects the connotations of words
 

Benchmark 3.d
Identify Meaning of Common Idioms, Literary and Classical Allusions
 
Indicator 3.d.1
Demonstrate an understanding of idioms
 
Indicator 3.d.2
Use prior knowledge and other study to identify meaning of allusions
 
Indicator 3.d.3
Demonstrate an understanding of figurative language in word meanings
 
Indicator 3.d.4
Interpret figures of speech in context and analyze their roles in text
 

Benchmark 3.e
Expand Vocabulary through Speaking, Reading, and Writing
 
Indicator 3.e.1
Expand vocabulary through speaking, reading, and writing
 
Indicator 3.e.2
Consult reference materials to find pronunciation, meaning, etc.
 

Benchmark 3.f
Use Knowledge of Language to Comprehend Texts
 
Indicator 3.f.1
Use knowledge of language to comprehend texts
 
Indicator 3.f.2
Analyze how word etymology impacts contemporary usage
 
ELA.G12
Standard 4
  READ AND ANALYZE BRITISH LITERATURE AND LITERATURE OF OTHER CULTURES
 

Benchmark 4.a
Compare, Contrast the Development of British Lit in Historical Context
 
Indicator 4.a.1
Analyze how author's attitudes, etc. relate to larger contexts
 

Benchmark 4.b
Recognize Major Literary Forms and Their Elements
 
Indicator 4.b.1
Recognize major literary forms and their elements
 
Indicator 4.b.2
Use reading strategies to improve reading comprehension
 
Indicator 4.b.3
Evaluate how word choice, tone, etc. shape intended meaning of text
 
Indicator 4.b.4
Compare effect of literary elements among a variety of texts, genres
 

Benchmark 4.c
Recognize the Characteristics of Major Chronological Eras
 
Indicator 4.c.1
Identify the literary characteristics of specific eras
 

Benchmark 4.d
Relate Literary Works, Authors to Major Themes, Issues of Their Eras
 
Indicator 4.d.1
Recognize major themes and issues in literature
 

Benchmark 4.e
Analyze the Social and Cultural Function of British Literature
 
Indicator 4.e.1
Analyze how British literature provides social commentary
 

Benchmark 4.f
Explain How the Sound of a Poem Supports the Subject, Mood, and Theme
 
Indicator 4.f.1
Explain how the sound of a poem supports the subject, mood, and theme
 
Indicator 4.f.2
Explain how the choice of words in a poem creates tone
 
Indicator 4.f.3
Explain how reader's response to poem is manipulated by imagery, etc.
 

Benchmark 4.g
Compare, Contrast Traditional, Contemporary Poems from Many Cultures
 
Indicator 4.g.1
Compare, contrast traditional, contemporary poems from many cultures
 

Benchmark 4.h
Analyze How Dramatic Conventions Contribute to Theme and Effect
 
Indicator 4.h.1
Analyze how dramatic conventions contribute to theme and effect
 
Indicator 4.h.2
Explain how dramatist uses dialogue to reveal theme
 
Indicator 4.h.3
Distinguish between what is stated and what is intended in a text
 

Benchmark 4.i
Compare and Contrast Dramatic Elements of Plays from Many Cultures
 
Indicator 4.i.1
Compare, contrast traditional, contemporary drama from many cultures
 
Indicator 4.i.2
Compare, contrast dramatic structure of plays from various cultures
 
Indicator 4.i.3
Analyze a subject or a key scene in two different media
 
ELA.G12
Standard 5
  READ AND ANALYZE A VARIETY OF NONFICTION TEXTS
 

Benchmark 5.a
Generate and Respond to Questions throughout the Reading Process
 
Indicator 5.a.1
Use critical thinking questions to activate prior knowledge, etc.
 
Indicator 5.a.2
Use reading strategies to improve comprehension, etc.
 

Benchmark 5.b
Analyze and Synthesize Information to Solve Problems, etc.
 
Indicator 5.b.1
Analyze and synthesize information to solve problems, etc.
 
Indicator 5.b.2
Analyze print and Web-based informational and technical texts
 
Indicator 5.b.3
Examine the format of text as an aid in analyzing, determining content
 
Indicator 5.b.4
Recognize and apply specialized informational vocabulary
 

Benchmark 5.c
Analyze Two or More Texts Addressing the Same Topic
 
Indicator 5.c.1
Analyze how two or more texts develop and treat the same idea
 
Indicator 5.c.2
Analyze how logical arguments could reach conflicting conclusions
 
Indicator 5.c.3
Compare and contrast how multiple texts treat similar ideas
 
Indicator 5.c.4
Analyze how authors use rhetorical strategies and techniques
 

Benchmark 5.d
Analyze Use of Ambiguity, Contradiction, Paradox, Irony, etc.
 
Indicator 5.d.1
Analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, etc.
 
Indicator 5.d.2
Determine author's point of view, etc. in text with effective rhetoric
 
Indicator 5.d.3
Recognize persuasive techniques
 
Indicator 5.d.4
Analyze how authors use ethos, logos, and pathos
 

Benchmark 5.e
Identify False Premises in Persuasive Writing
 
Indicator 5.e.1
Identify false premises in persuasive writing
 
Indicator 5.e.2
Analyze false premises that intentionally manipulate audiences
 
Indicator 5.e.3
Evaluate the relevance and quality of evidence used to support a claim
 

Benchmark 5.f
Draw Conclusions, Make Inferences on Explicit and Implied Information
 
Indicator 5.f.1
Draw conclusions, make inferences on explicit and implied information
 
Indicator 5.f.2
Make references to texts to verify conclusions, support inferences
 
Indicator 5.f.3
Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events
 
ELA.G12
Standard 6
  DEVELOP EXPOSITORY, INFORMATIONAL, ANALYSES, PERSUASIVE WRITINGS
 

Benchmark 6.a
Generate, Gather, and Organize Ideas for Writing
 
Indicator 6.a.1
Generate expository writings
 
Indicator 6.a.2
Develop technical writings
 
Indicator 6.a.3
Develop analytical essays
 
Indicator 6.a.4
Develop persuasive/argumentative writings
 
Indicator 6.a.5
Complete employment forms through simulations, real-life opportunities
 
Indicator 6.a.6
Complete applications, essays, and resumes for college admission
 
Indicator 6.a.7
Write routinely over extended and shorter time frames
 
Indicator 6.a.8
Evaluate good writing to identify and apply effective techniques
 

Benchmark 6.b
Produce Arguments in Writing That Develop a Thesis, etc.
 
Indicator 6.b.1
Construct arguments that provide precise, significant, logical claims
 
Indicator 6.b.2
Develop a thesis that demonstrates clear and knowledgeable judgments
 
Indicator 6.b.3
Develop claim(s) and counterclaims thoroughly with relevant evidence
 
Indicator 6.b.4
Focus paragraphs by using a variety of strategic techniques
 
Indicator 6.b.5
Develop ideas in a logical sequence
 
Indicator 6.b.6
Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text
 
Indicator 6.b.7
Create cohesion, clarify relationships among reasons, evidence, etc.
 
Indicator 6.b.8
Use transition words and phrases to signal progression of ideas
 
Indicator 6.b.9
Provide a clear and effective conclusion
 

Benchmark 6.c
Clarify and Defend a Position with Precise and Relevant Evidence
 
Indicator 6.c.1
Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence
 
Indicator 6.c.2
Elaborate for clarity and accuracy developing the topic fully
 
Indicator 6.c.3
Use a range of strategies to elaborate and persuade
 

Benchmark 6.d
Adapt Content, Vocabulary, Voice, and Tone to Audience, Purpose, etc.
 
Indicator 6.d.1
Adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, etc.
 
Indicator 6.d.2
Establish and maintain a style and tone
 
Indicator 6.d.3
Write clear and varied sentences
 
Indicator 6.d.4
Use wide-ranging vocabulary appropriately and effectively
 
Indicator 6.d.5
Craft individual style through sentence structure, tone, voice, etc.
 

Benchmark 6.e
Use Varied Rhetorical Strategies to Accomplish a Specific Purpose
 
Indicator 6.e.1
Apply persuasive rhetorical devices and techniques when appropriate
 

Benchmark 6.f
Create Arguments Free of Errors in Logic and Externally Supported
 
Indicator 6.f.1
Create arguments free of errors in logic and externally supported
 
Indicator 6.f.2
Recognize and avoid common logical fallacies or false premises
 

Benchmark 6.g
Revise Writing for Clarity of Content, Depth of Information, etc.
 
Indicator 6.g.1
Revise writing for depth of information and to adhere to format
 
Indicator 6.g.2
Reflect on the writing process and establish goals for future work
 
Indicator 6.g.3
Collaborate to improve writing through small, large group discussions
 
Indicator 6.g.4
Write, revise correspondence to workplace and higher ed. standards
 

Benchmark 6.h
Use Computer Technology to Plan, Draft, Revise, Edit, Publish Writing
 
Indicator 6.h.1
Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, publish writing
 
Indicator 6.h.2
Compose and revise drafts collaboratively using technology
 
ELA.G12
Standard 7
  WRITE, REVISE, AND EDIT WRITING
 

Benchmark 7.a
Edit, Proofread, and Prepare Writing for Intended Audience and Purpose
 
Indicator 7.a.1
Edit one's own and others' work for grammar, style and tone
 
Indicator 7.a.2
Evaluate whether draft is effectively supported, adequately developed
 
Indicator 7.a.3
Assess and strengthen the quality of the writing through revision
 

Benchmark 7.b
Apply Grammatical Conventions to Edit Writing
 
Indicator 7.b.1
Apply grammatical conventions to adjust sentence, paragraph structures
 
Indicator 7.b.2
Observe hyphenation rules
 

Benchmark 7.c
Use MLA or APA Style to Punctuate and Format Direct Quotations
 
Indicator 7.c.1
Apply MLA or APA style to punctuate and format in-text citations
 
ELA.G12
Standard 8
  WRITE DOCUMENTED RESEARCH PAPERS
 

Benchmark 8.a
Use Technology to Research, Organize, Evaluate, Communicate Info.
 
Indicator 8.a.1
Utilize technology to conduct research, organize information, etc.
 
Indicator 8.a.2
Use technology as a tool to collaborate throughout the writing process
 

Benchmark 8.b
Analyze and Synthesize Information to Solve Problems, etc.
 
Indicator 8.b.1
Analyze and synthesize information to solve problems, etc.
 
Indicator 8.b.2
Identify, narrow a topic for research through a variety of strategies
 
Indicator 8.b.3
Evaluate, synthesize relevant information using a variety of sources
 
Indicator 8.b.4
Organize information into a draft
 
Indicator 8.b.5
Formulate a thesis that represents findings from collected information
 

Benchmark 8.c
Evaluate the Accuracy, Quality, and Validity of the Information
 
Indicator 8.c.1
Evaluate collected information by determining validity, accuracy, etc.
 

Benchmark 8.d
Synthesize, Present Information in a Logical Manner to Support Thesis
 
Indicator 8.d.1
Synthesize, present information in a logical manner to support thesis
 

Benchmark 8.e
Cite Sources Using a Standard Method of Documentation
 
Indicator 8.e.1
Cite sources to avoid plagiarism, using MLA or APA style
 

Benchmark 8.f
Revise Writing For Clarity, Depth of Information, etc.
 
Indicator 8.f.1
Revise writing for clarity, depth of information, etc.
 

Benchmark 8.g
Edit Writing for Correct Language, Spelling Punctuation, Syntax, etc.
 
Indicator 8.g.1
Edit writing for language, capitalization, spelling, syntax, etc.
 
Indicator 8.g.2
Collaborate with others to edit writing
 

Benchmark 8.h
Define Plagiarism and Follow Guidelines for Using Information
 
Indicator 8.h.1
Demonstrate a sophisticated understanding of the ethics of writing
 
Indicator 8.h.2
Understand that plagiarism is presenting someone else's ideas as own
 
Indicator 8.h.3
Recognize one must correctly cite sources giving credit to the author
 
Indicator 8.h.4
Recognized that paraphrased information must be cited
 
Indicator 8.h.5
Use quotation marks when someone else's exact words are quoted
 
Indicator 8.h.6
Understand the consequences of plagiarism in college and careers


Essential - Standard, benchmark, or indicator from the VDOE Standards of Learning document. In the absence of VDOE standards for a given course, content subject to testing such as AP and IB can be labeled Essential.
Expected - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies to provide a context, a bridge, or an enhancement to the Essential SBIs.
Extended - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies generally used to differentiate instruction for advanced learners (Honors/GT)