Language Arts/English Curriculum
  English 10

Students read and analyze a variety of literary and nonfiction texts, comparing and contrasting the techniques authors use in literature of different cultures and eras. Language study continues to extend students’ vocabulary through learning about connotations, denotations, word origins, and structures. Students apply their understanding of grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing to varied and frequent writing assignments. With an emphasis on expository and analytic writing, students expand their understanding of writing as a process and develop their skills in revising to address a specific audience and purpose. In the research process, students collect, evaluate, organize, and present accurate and valid information to create a research product. They also improve communication and collaboration skills through small- and large-group discussions and presentations.


(This is a Standards of Learning aligned course, which is tested in 11th grade.)

Last Updated: 08/17/12 10:17 AM
Standard 1

Benchmark 1.a
Assume Responsibility for Specific Group Tasks
Indicator 1.a.1
Assume shared responsibility for collaborative work

Benchmark 1.b
Collaborate in the Preparation or Summary of the Group Activity
Indicator 1.b.1
Collaborate to set rules for group presentations and discussions
Indicator 1.b.2
Collaborate with peers to set clear goals and deadlines
Indicator 1.b.3
Collaborate with peers to define individual roles as needed

Benchmark 1.c
Include All Group Members in Oral Presentation
Indicator 1.c.1
Include all group members in oral presentation
Indicator 1.c.2
Actively contribute to group activities, participate in presentations

Benchmark 1.d
Choose Language Appropriate to Topic, Audience, and Purpose
Indicator 1.d.1
Choose language appropriate to topic, audience, and purpose
Indicator 1.d.2
Use grammatically correct language
Indicator 1.d.3
Use persuasive and compelling language and visual techniques

Benchmark 1.e
Work Effectively with Diverse Teams to Accomplish a Common Goal
Indicator 1.e.1
Exercise flexibility to make compromises to accomplish a goal

Benchmark 1.f
Collaborate with Others to Exchange Ideas, Solve Problems, etc.
Indicator 1.f.1
Collaborate with others to exchange ideas, solve problems, etc.
Indicator 1.f.2
Engage others in a conversation by posing and responding to questions
Indicator 1.f.3
Summarize points of agreement and disagreement, qualifying views, etc.
Indicator 1.f.4
Ensure all ideas are treated respectfully
Indicator 1.f.5
Acknowledge differing points of view
Indicator 1.f.6
Apply background knowledge to develop new understandings, etc.

Benchmark 1.g
Access, Critically Evaluate, and Use Information to Solve Problems
Indicator 1.g.1
Access and organize information as part of a group project
Indicator 1.g.2
Pose solutions to authentic problems based on documented research

Benchmark 1.h
Evaluate One's Own Role in Preparation and Delivery of Oral Reports
Indicator 1.h.1
Evaluate one's own role in preparation and delivery of oral reports
Indicator 1.h.2
Evaluate strengths and weaknesses of small-group presentations

Benchmark 1.i
Use a Variety of Strategies to Listen Actively
Indicator 1.i.1
Demonstrate active listening through posture, gestures, etc.
Indicator 1.i.2
Demonstrate active listening with follow-up questions, discussion

Benchmark 1.j
Analyze and Interpret Others' Presentations
Indicator 1.j.1
Analyze and interpret others' presentations
Indicator 1.j.2
Evaluate the impact of presentations, use group feedback for revision

Benchmark 1.k
Evaluate Effectiveness of Group in Prep and Delivery of Oral Reports
Indicator 1.k.1
Evaluate overall effectiveness of groups' preparation, presentation
Indicator 1.k.2
Examine preparation, interaction, and performances as group members
Standard 2

Benchmark 2.a
Use Media, Visual Literacy, and Technology Skills to Create Products
Indicator 2.a.1
Use media, visual literacy, and technology skills to create products
Indicator 2.a.2
Apply knowledge of special effects and persuasive techniques

Benchmark 2.b
Evaluate Sources for Relationships among Intent, Facts, Opinions
Indicator 2.b.1
Identify and analyze the sources and viewpoint of publications
Indicator 2.b.2
Compare, contrast media messages for content, intent, impact, etc.
Indicator 2.b.3
Compare and contrast visual and verbal media messages

Benchmark 2.c
Determine Author's Purpose and Effect on Intended Audience
Indicator 2.c.1
Determine author's purpose, factual content, opinion and/or bias
Indicator 2.c.2
Analyze persuasive language, word connotations to convey bias

Benchmark 2.d
Identify the Tools and Techniques Used to Achieve the Intended Focus
Indicator 2.d.1
Identify the tools and techniques used to achieve the intended purpose
Indicator 2.d.2
Evaluate effectiveness of tools, techniques on audience beliefs, etc.
Standard 3

Benchmark 3.a
Use Structural Analysis of Roots, Affixes, Etc. to Understand Words
Indicator 3.a.1
Use roots or affixes to determine the meanings of complex words
Indicator 3.a.2
Use synonyms and antonyms to understand the meaning of complex words
Indicator 3.a.3
Use cognates to understand the meaning of complex words

Benchmark 3.b
Use Context, Structure, etc. to Determine Meanings of Words, Phrases
Indicator 3.b.1
Use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase
Indicator 3.b.2
Use word structure to analyze and relate words
Indicator 3.b.3
Demonstrate an understanding of connotations in word meanings
Indicator 3.b.4
Demonstrate an understanding of word relationships in word meanings
Indicator 3.b.5
Use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings, etc.

Benchmark 3.c
Discriminate between Connotative and Denotative Meanings
Indicator 3.c.1
Analyze and interpret connotations of words with similar denotations
Indicator 3.c.2
Demonstrate understanding of word relationships, nuances in meaning
Indicator 3.c.3
Connect how author's purpose affects the connotations of words

Benchmark 3.d
Identify the Meaning of Common Idioms
Indicator 3.d.1
Demonstrate an understanding of idioms

Benchmark 3.e
Identify Literary, Classical Allusions and Figurative Language in Text
Indicator 3.e.1
Use prior knowledge and other study to identify meaning of allusions
Indicator 3.e.2
Demonstrate an understanding of figurative language in word meanings
Indicator 3.e.3
Interpret figures of speech in context and analyze their roles in text
Indicator 3.e.4
Evaluate use of figurative language to determine how it enriches text

Benchmark 3.f
Extend Vocabulary Through Speaking, Reading, and Writing
Indicator 3.f.1
Extend vocabulary through speaking, reading, and writing
Indicator 3.f.2
Consult reference materials to find pronunciation, meaning, etc.

Benchmark 3.g
Use Knowledge of Language to Comprehend Texts
Indicator 3.g.1
Use knowledge of language to comprehend texts
Indicator 3.g.2
Analyze how word etymology impacts contemporary usage
Standard 4

Benchmark 4.a
Identify Main and Supporting Ideas
Indicator 4.a.1
Identify main and supporting ideas

Benchmark 4.b
Draw Inferences, etc. to Support Reading Comprehension
Indicator 4.b.1
Draw inferences, etc. to support reading comprehension
Indicator 4.b.2
Make connections between prior knowledge and new information
Indicator 4.b.3
Reflect on accuracy of own predictions based on new knowledge

Benchmark 4.c
Compare, Contrast Lit Techniques, Forms from Different Cultures, Eras
Indicator 4.c.1
Compare, contrast lit techniques, forms from different cultures, eras
Indicator 4.c.2
Explain similarities among lit genres from different cultures
Indicator 4.c.3
Compare and contrast literary works from different cultures and eras
Indicator 4.c.4
Describe common archetypes that pervade literature
Indicator 4.c.5
Analyze literary features of texts from different cultures and eras

Benchmark 4.d
Analyze the Cultural or Social Function of Literature
Indicator 4.d.1
Analyze the cultural or social function of literature
Indicator 4.d.2
Analyze cultural function of a text in relation to time period, etc.

Benchmark 4.e
Identify Universal Themes Prevalent in Lit of Different Cultures
Indicator 4.e.1
Identify universal themes

Benchmark 4.f
Examine a Literary Selection from Several Critical Perspectives
Indicator 4.f.1
Examine a literary selection from several critical perspectives

Benchmark 4.g
Explain Influence of Historical Context on Form, Style, Point of View
Indicator 4.g.1
Explain influence of historical context on the form, and style of text
Indicator 4.g.2
Analyze a point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work
Indicator 4.g.3
Analyze literature for historical information

Benchmark 4.h
Evaluate How Word Choice, Tone, etc. Shape Meaning, Purpose, etc.
Indicator 4.h.1
Evaluate how word choice, tone, etc. shape meaning, purpose, etc.
Indicator 4.h.2
Apply elements of authors' styles to create a new work

Benchmark 4.i
Compare and Contrast Literature from Different Cultures and Eras
Indicator 4.i.1
Compare and contrast literature from different cultures and eras
Indicator 4.i.2
Compare, contrast authors' use of literary elements among genres
Indicator 4.i.3
Evaluate how literature reflects society and culture

Benchmark 4.j
Distinguish between a Critique and a Summary
Indicator 4.j.1
Distinguish between a critique and a summary
Indicator 4.j.2
Understand the purpose of both critiques and summaries

Benchmark 4.k
Compare, Contrast How Literary Devices Convey Message, Elicit Emotions
Indicator 4.k.1
Compare, contrast how literary devices convey message, elicit emotions
Indicator 4.k.2
Compare, contrast literary devices that convey poem's message, emotion
Indicator 4.k.3
Interpret and paraphrase the meanings of selected poems
Indicator 4.k.4
Analyze the relationship between and among elements of literature

Benchmark 4.l
Compare Character Development in Plays and in Other Literary Forms
Indicator 4.l.1
Analyze the use of dialogue, music, set, etc. to interpret characters
Indicator 4.l.2
Analyze different functions that characters play in a literary text
Indicator 4.l.3
Analyze how characters' actions, etc. reveal nuances and advance plot
Indicator 4.l.4
Analyze representation of a subject, key scene in two different media
Indicator 4.l.5
Identify and describe dramatic conventions

Benchmark 4.m
Use Reading Strategies to Monitor Comprehension
Indicator 4.m.1
Use reading strategies to improve comprehension
Standard 5

Benchmark 5.a
Identify Text Organization and Structure
Indicator 5.a.1
Identify text organization and structure

Benchmark 5.b
Recognize an Author's Intended Audience and Purpose for Writing
Indicator 5.b.1
Recognize an author's intended audience and purpose for writing
Indicator 5.b.2
Compare, contrast nonfiction and fiction passages on the same topic

Benchmark 5.c
Skim Manuals or Informational Sources to Locate Information
Indicator 5.c.1
Skim manuals or informational sources to locate information
Indicator 5.c.2
Identify main ideas in informational texts
Indicator 5.c.3
Identify essential details in complex informational passages
Indicator 5.c.4
Use text features to identify information for a specific task

Benchmark 5.d
Compare and Contrast Informational Texts
Indicator 5.d.1
Compare and contrast informational texts
Indicator 5.d.2
Identify different formats, purposes of informational, technical texts
Indicator 5.d.3
Analyze two or more texts addressing the same topic
Indicator 5.d.4
Evaluate the effectiveness of information across multiple texts

Benchmark 5.e
Interpret and Use Data in Maps, Charts, Graphs, Timelines, etc.
Indicator 5.e.1
Interpret and use data in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, etc.

Benchmark 5.f
Draw Conclusions, Make Inferences on Explicit and Implied Information
Indicator 5.f.1
Draw conclusions and make inferences from informational texts
Indicator 5.f.2
Use textual evidence when drawing conclusions, making inference
Indicator 5.f.3
Analyze how authors use rhetoric to advance their points of view

Benchmark 5.g
Analyze and Synthesize Information to Solve Problems, etc.
Indicator 5.g.1
Analyze and synthesize information to solve problems, etc.
Indicator 5.g.2
Synthesize information across multiple informational texts
Indicator 5.g.3
Analyze, synthesize info. to pose solutions to authentic problems

Benchmark 5.h
Use Reading Strategies to Monitor Comprehension
Indicator 5.h.1
Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension
Standard 6

Benchmark 6.a
Generate, Gather, Plan, and Organize Ideas for Writing
Indicator 6.a.1
Plan and organize ideas for writing
Indicator 6.a.2
Develop writing that analyzes complex issues
Indicator 6.a.3
Write expository texts that enumerate details, explain a process, etc.
Indicator 6.a.4
Write persuasively and analytically on a variety of subjects
Indicator 6.a.5
Evaluate analytical writing; understand how parts relate to the whole
Indicator 6.a.6
Generate ideas for writing to address specific audience and purpose
Indicator 6.a.7
Gather ideas and evidence necessary to develop writing
Indicator 6.a.8
Practice writing for shorter and extended time frames
Indicator 6.a.9
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis
Indicator 6.a.10
Write to interpret, analyze, or evaluate a need in the community

Benchmark 6.b
Synthesize Information to Support the Thesis
Indicator 6.b.1
Synthesize information to support the thesis

Benchmark 6.c
Elaborate Ideas Clearly Through Word Choice and Vivid Description
Indicator 6.c.1
Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice and vivid description
Indicator 6.c.2
Elaborate ideas in order to provide support for the thesis
Indicator 6.c.3
Use visual and sensory language as needed for effect

Benchmark 6.d
Write Clear, Varied Sentences, Clarifying Ideas with Relevant Evidence
Indicator 6.d.1
Identify and apply features of the writing domains
Indicator 6.d.2
Vary sentence structures for effect
Indicator 6.d.3
Craft individual writing style through sentence structure, tone, etc.

Benchmark 6.e
Organize Ideas into a Logical Sequence Using Transitions
Indicator 6.e.1
Develop ideas, apply effective organizational patterns, techniques
Indicator 6.e.2
Arrange paragraphs into a logical progression
Indicator 6.e.3
Use words and phrases to signal organizational pattern and transitions

Benchmark 6.f
Revise Writing for Clarity of Content, Accuracy, Depth of Information
Indicator 6.f.1
Revise writing for clarity of content and presentation
Indicator 6.f.2
Demonstrate understanding of composing, written expression, etc.
Indicator 6.f.3
Use peer- and self-evaluation to review and revise writing
Indicator 6.f.4
Reflect on personal progress toward established goals

Benchmark 6.g
Use Computer Technology to Plan, Draft, Revise, Edit, Publish Writing
Indicator 6.g.1
Use computer technology to assist in the writing process
Indicator 6.g.2
Compose and revise drafts collaboratively using technology
Standard 7

Benchmark 7.a
Distinguish Between Active and Passive Voice
Indicator 7.a.1
Distinguish between active, passive voice to convey a desired effect

Benchmark 7.b
Apply Rules Governing Use of the Colon
Indicator 7.b.1
Know and apply the rules for the use of a colon
Indicator 7.b.2
Distinguish among comma, semicolon, and colon use

Benchmark 7.c
Apply MLA, APA Style for Punctuation and Formatting Direct Quotations
Indicator 7.c.1
Use direct quotations in writing; apply MLA or APA style

Benchmark 7.d
Differentiate between In-Text Citations and Works Cited
Indicator 7.d.1
Differentiate between in-text citations and works cited

Benchmark 7.e
Analyze the Writing of Others
Indicator 7.e.1
Analyze writings critically, using knowledge of composition, etc.
Indicator 7.e.2
Use specific criteria to provide feedback

Benchmark 7.f
Describe How the Author Accomplishes the Intended Purpose of a Piece
Indicator 7.f.1
Describe how the author accomplishes the intended purpose a piece
Indicator 7.f.2
Analyze literary devices and structural patterns of written language
Indicator 7.f.3
Evaluate the degree to which an author accomplishes his or her purpose

Benchmark 7.g
Suggest How Writing Might Be Improved
Indicator 7.g.1
Suggest how writing might be improved
Indicator 7.g.2
Correct grammatical or usage errors
Indicator 7.g.3
Evaluate logical sequencing of ideas to ensure clarity and cohesion
Indicator 7.g.4
Collaborate to improve writing through small, large group discussions

Benchmark 7.h
Proofread and Edit Final Product for Intended Audience and Purpose
Indicator 7.h.1
Use peer- and self-evaluation to edit writing
Indicator 7.h.2
Proofread and prepare final product for intended audience and purpose
Indicator 7.h.3
Proofread, edit final product for correct grammar, spelling, etc.
Indicator 7.h.4
Reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of one's own writing
Standard 8

Benchmark 8.a
Use Technology to Research, Organize, Evaluate, and Communicate Info.
Indicator 8.a.1
Use technology to gather information from various sources
Indicator 8.a.2
Organize information and maintain coherence throughout the piece
Indicator 8.a.3
Use organizational patterns/techniques
Indicator 8.a.4
Synthesize information from a variety of print and electronic sources

Benchmark 8.b
Develop the Central Idea or Focus
Indicator 8.b.1
Develop the central idea or focus

Benchmark 8.c
Verify the Accuracy and Usefulness of Information
Indicator 8.c.1
Evaluate sources for credibility, reliability, strengths, limitations
Indicator 8.c.2
Distinguish between reliable and unreliable sources
Indicator 8.c.3
Evaluate the usefulness of information to the research product

Benchmark 8.d
Make Sense of Information Gathered from Diverse Sources
Indicator 8.d.1
Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources

Benchmark 8.e
Credit Sources of Information Using MLA or APA Documentation Style
Indicator 8.e.1
Cite primary and secondary sources of information using MLA or APA
Indicator 8.e.2
Cite sources of paraphrased information
Indicator 8.e.3
Understand that using MLA, APA protects intellectual property

Benchmark 8.f
Define Plagiarism and Follow Guidelines for Using Information
Indicator 8.f.1
Understand that plagiarism is presenting someone else's ideas as own
Indicator 8.f.2
Follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering, using information
Indicator 8.f.3
Distinguish one's own ideas from ideas created by others
Indicator 8.f.4
Use quotation marks when someone else's exact words are quoted
Indicator 8.f.5
Cite sources to give credit to the author of an original work
Indicator 8.f.6
Understand the consequences of plagiarism in college and careers

Essential - Standard, benchmark, or indicator from the VDOE Standards of Learning document. In the absence of VDOE standards for a given course, content subject to testing such as AP and IB can be labeled Essential.
Expected - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies to provide a context, a bridge, or an enhancement to the Essential SBIs.
Extended - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies generally used to differentiate instruction for advanced learners (Honors/GT)