﻿ FCPS Program of Studies
Science Curriculum
Geosystems

Geosystems utilizes content from geology, astronomy, oceanography, and meteorology to investigate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the major earth systems (atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere) and their dynamic inter-relationships. Students explore concepts with the same tools professional scientists use including computers, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), image processing software, and probeware. Students are required to take the Standards of Learning End of Course Test.

Last Updated: 08/17/12 10:32 AM

SCI.ES
Standard 1
PLAN AND CONDUCT INVESTIGATIONS

Benchmark 1.a
Calculate Volume, Area, Mass, etc. Using the Most Appropriate Tools

 Indicator 1.a.1 Measure mass and volume of regular and irregular shaped objects

 Indicator 1.a.2 Apply concept of mass per unit volume; Calculate density

 Indicator 1.a.3 Select & use appropriate tools & techniques to collect & display data

 Indicator 1.a.4 Use consistent units when processing data

 Indicator 1.a.5 Consider the possible effects of measurement errors on calculations

 Indicator 1.a.6 Use mathematical equations to reach and justify conclusions

 Indicator 1.a.7 Derive mathematical equations to reach proper conclusions

Benchmark 1.b
Use Technology to Collect, Analyze, and Report Data

 Indicator 1.b.1 Identify resources which could be applied to a solution

 Indicator 1.b.2 Access real time data using reputable sources to solve real problems

 Indicator 1.b.3 Access scientific information using a variety of media; Cite sources

 Indicator 1.b.4 Demonstrate the dependence of science on technology

 Indicator 1.b.5 Use graphing calculators & computers to produce models & graphs

 Indicator 1.b.6 Record data in tables; Use data to construct and interpret graphics

 Indicator 1.b.7 Share information electronically with peers and instructors

 Indicator 1.b.8 Relate historical events to the inventions of technology used today

 Indicator 1.b.9 Design a study that uses technology to gather, analyze & display data

Benchmark 1.c
Construct and Interpret Scales, Diagrams, Charts, Tables, etc.

 Indicator 1.c.1 Collect data

 Indicator 1.c.2 Determine which type of graphical representation best displays data

 Indicator 1.c.3 Generate models, graphs, and spreadsheets using collected data

 Indicator 1.c.4 Present data in a variety of ways

 Indicator 1.c.5 Construct profiles from topographic contours

 Indicator 1.c.6 Communicate information obtained from charts, graphs, etc. to peers

 Indicator 1.c.7 Read and interpret graphs, computer simulations and models

 Indicator 1.c.8 Interpret data showing changes in temp./pressure with depth/altitude

 Indicator 1.c.9 Interpret information contained in remote images and GIS databases

Benchmark 1.d
Read & Interpret Direction and Measurements of Distance on a Map/Globe

 Indicator 1.d.1 Read and interpret maps in one-dimension (direction and distance)

 Indicator 1.d.2 Read and interpret maps in more than one dimension

 Indicator 1.d.3 Use latitude and longitude down to minutes to locate points on a map

 Indicator 1.d.4 Interpret features on 7.5 minute quadrangles on topographic maps

 Indicator 1.d.5 Analyze and interpret the information found on surface weather maps

 Indicator 1.d.6 Compare and contrast the three types of basic map projections

 Indicator 1.d.7 Create, edit, and share a presentation-quality map using ArcGIS

Benchmark 1.e
Manipulate Variables With Repeated Trials

 Indicator 1.e.1 Develop a clear and concise set of procedures; Revise as necessary

 Indicator 1.e.2 Utilize experimental design to develop a model for investigation

 Indicator 1.e.3 Suggest improvements in the design of the study

Benchmark 1.f
Use Current Applications to Reinforce Science Concepts

 Indicator 1.f.1 Apply Earth science content to current issues and applications

 Indicator 1.f.2 Use the writing process to develop and express a viewpoint

 Indicator 1.f.3 Explore solutions to local and far-reaching environmental problems

 Indicator 1.f.4 Design a product or solution to a real world problem

SCI.ES
Standard 2
DEMONSTRATE AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE NATURE OF SCIENCE, LOGIC, ETC.

Benchmark 2.a
Understand How Science Explains & Predicts Dynamics of Earth Systems

 Indicator 2.a.1 Observe the natural world, raise questions, seek answers

 Indicator 2.a.2 Identify key issues and problems

 Indicator 2.a.3 Make predictions, using scientific data and data analysis

 Indicator 2.a.4 Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions

 Indicator 2.a.5 Determine trends and relationships from data

 Indicator 2.a.6 Analyze how natural processes can be used to predict or explain

 Indicator 2.a.7 Create a code of scientific integrity that applies in the classroom

 Indicator 2.a.8 Describe the limitations of science in meeting human problems & needs

 Indicator 2.a.9 Question the interactions & dependencies between science & technology

Benchmark 2.b
Recognize Evidence Is Required to Evaluate Hypotheses and Explanations

 Indicator 2.b.1 Develop hypotheses

 Indicator 2.b.2 Use data to support or reject a hypothesis.

 Indicator 2.b.3 Distinguish between examples of observations and inferences

 Indicator 2.b.4 Obtain & interpret information using probes & geospatial technologies

Benchmark 2.c
Understand Observation & Logic Are Essential for Reaching a Conclusion

 Indicator 2.c.1 Test the validity of prior conclusions

 Indicator 2.c.2 Apply scientific investigative methods to generate conclusions

 Indicator 2.c.3 Analyze results in order to construct a plausible explanation

 Indicator 2.c.4 Evaluate statements to determine if systematic science is used

Benchmark 2.d
Understand That Evidence Is Evaluated for Scientific Theories

 Indicator 2.d.1 Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and scientific laws

 Indicator 2.d.2 Contrast the scientific use vs. the nontechnical usage of "theory"

 Indicator 2.d.3 Explain how scientific methodology is used to change theories

 Indicator 2.d.4 Differentiate between verifiable data and unfounded claims

 Indicator 2.d.5 Correlate historical events with individuals and circumstances

 Indicator 2.d.6 Debate theories and ideas with peers in group discussions

 Indicator 2.d.7 Share experimental results with peers for review and analysis

 Indicator 2.d.8 Evaluate peer research

SCI.ES
Standard 3
UNDERSTAND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Benchmark 3.a
Understand the Position of Earth in the Solar System

 Indicator 3.a.1 Draw a diagram of the solar system and label the planets

 Indicator 3.a.2 Diagram relative positions of the Sun/Moon/Earth; Predict tides, etc.

 Indicator 3.a.3 Analyze the role of Earth's position, size, and axial tilt

 Indicator 3.a.4 Explain Eratosthenes' method of calculating Earth's circumference

 Indicator 3.a.5 Calculate the Earth's Polar and Equatorial circumference using GPS

Benchmark 3.b
Understand Sun-Earth-Moon Relationships (Seasons, Tides, Eclipses)

 Indicator 3.b.1 Diagram and explain the cause of the seasons

 Indicator 3.b.2 Explain & describe the gravitational forces that cause Earth’s tides

 Indicator 3.b.3 Create a model showing the position of Earth, the moon & moon phases

 Indicator 3.b.4 Create a model of the position of Earth, moon & sun during an eclipse

 Indicator 3.b.5 Compare and contrast lunar and solar eclipses

 Indicator 3.b.6 Explain why there is not a solar and lunar eclipse each month

 Indicator 3.b.7 Use Earth's analemma to determine a specific date

Benchmark 3.c
Understand Characteristics of the Sun, Planets, Moons, Comets, etc.

 Indicator 3.c.1 Describe Sun’s internal structure, surface features, source of energy

 Indicator 3.c.2 Differentiate between the inner & outer planets and their atmospheres

 Indicator 3.c.3 Compare and contrast the characteristics of the planets

 Indicator 3.c.4 Analyze the 4 inner planets; Explain why they vary so significantly

 Indicator 3.c.5 Compare the classification of the dwarf planet Pluto to the planets

 Indicator 3.c.6 Compare characteristics among moons, comets, meteoroids, asteroids

 Indicator 3.c.7 Predict needed conditions for another celestial object to support life

 Indicator 3.c.8 Access current geologic and atmospheric data about the planets

 Indicator 3.c.9 Interpret remote sensing data that has been collected by satellites

 Indicator 3.c.10 Apply Newton's & Kepler's laws to describe the motion of the planets

 Indicator 3.c.11 Compare several different types of stars (including the Sun)

 Indicator 3.c.12 Research properties of a planetary body; Design plans for colonization

Benchmark 3.d
Understand the History and Contributions of Space Exploration

 Indicator 3.d.1 Create a timeline showing key events in space exploration

 Indicator 3.d.2 Compare the various types of evidence obtained from lunar exploration

 Indicator 3.d.3 Analyze historical explanations for the origin of the moon

 Indicator 3.d.4 Analyze how technology has contributed to change and enlightenment

SCI.ES
Standard 4
IDENTIFY MAJOR ROCK-FORMING AND ORE MINERALS

Benchmark 4.a
Understand Hardness, Color & Streak, Luster, Cleavage, Fracture, etc.

 Indicator 4.a.1 Differentiate between rocks and minerals

 Indicator 4.a.2 Analyze the distinguishing characteristics used to categorize minerals

 Indicator 4.a.3 Identify minerals by their physical and chemical properties

 Indicator 4.a.4 Recognize the major elements found in the Earth’s crust

 Indicator 4.a.5 Analyze why Fe, Al and Si are rarely found in the native state

 Indicator 4.a.6 Analyze distribution & persistence of minerals at/near Earth’s surface

Benchmark 4.b
Investigate and Understand the Uses of Minerals

 Indicator 4.b.1 Recognize some major rock-forming minerals; Explain their importance

 Indicator 4.b.2 Recognize some major ore minerals; Explain their importance

SCI.ES
Standard 5
INVESTIGATE AND UNDERSTAND THE ROCK CYCLE

Benchmark 5.a
Investigate and Understand Igneous Rocks

 Indicator 5.a.1 Explain how the cooling rate of molten material affects igneous rocks

 Indicator 5.a.2 Comprehend and identify various igneous rock textural features

 Indicator 5.a.3 Assess how magmatic origin affects the composition of igneous rocks

 Indicator 5.a.4 Differentiate and identify intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks

 Indicator 5.a.5 Use Bowen's Reaction Series to explain mineral associations

Benchmark 5.b
Investigate and Understand Sedimentary Rocks

 Indicator 5.b.1 List the weathering agents and describe their effects on structures

 Indicator 5.b.2 Differentiate between clastic and non-clastic sedimentary rocks

 Indicator 5.b.3 Analyze and identify various sedimentary rocks

Benchmark 5.c
Investigate and Understand Metamorphic Rocks

 Indicator 5.c.1 Explain how physical features can determine a rock's environment

 Indicator 5.c.2 Describe foliated & unfoliated metamorphic rocks: structure, formation

 Indicator 5.c.3 Analyze the major groups of metamorphic rocks; Determine parent rock

Benchmark 5.d
Investigate and Understand the Rock Cycle

 Indicator 5.d.1 Illustrate and describe the rock cycle

 Indicator 5.d.2 Integrate the rock cycle with Plate Tectonics Theory/VA's 5 provinces

SCI.ES
Standard 6
UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RENEWABLE & NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES

Benchmark 6.a
Understand Fossil Fuels, Minerals, Rocks, Water and Vegetation

 Indicator 6.a.1 Analyze the formation of fossil fuels; Relate to ancient conditions

Benchmark 6.b

 Indicator 6.b.1 Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable resources

Benchmark 6.c
Investigate and Understand Resources Found in Virginia

 Indicator 6.c.1 Identify examples of renewable & nonrenewable resources found in VA

 Indicator 6.c.2 Analyze how Virginia’s production/use of natural resources has changed

 Indicator 6.c.3 Evaluate Virginia’s potential as producer of renewable energy sources

 Indicator 6.c.4 Analyze a range of emerging energy and mineral resources in Virginia

Benchmark 6.d
Investigate and Understand Environmental Costs and Benefits

 Indicator 6.d.1 Assess role of fossil fuels & renewable energy sources in the future

 Indicator 6.d.2 Determine the sources of clean water in their community; Analyze data

 Indicator 6.d.3 Examine the uneven distribution of economically important resources

 Indicator 6.d.4 Explore the economic, political and geologic importance of resources

 Indicator 6.d.5 Distinguish among the various levels of natural resource consumption

Benchmark 6.e
Identify the Key Issue in an Actual Environmental Situation

 Indicator 6.e.1 Examine the role of human activity on the Earth System

 Indicator 6.e.2 Assess the benefits and/or risks of man-made hazards

 Indicator 6.e.3 Calculate the length of storage time for various radioactive wastes

 Indicator 6.e.4 Identify the core problem or key issue in an environmental situation

SCI.ES
Standard 7
UNDERSTAND GEOLOGIC PROCESSES INCLUDING PLATE TECTONICS

Benchmark 7.a
Understand Geologic Processes and Their Resulting Features

 Indicator 7.a.1 Compare the processes that create the Earth’s internal heat

 Indicator 7.a.2 Describe how the internal differentiation of the Earth led to layers

 Indicator 7.a.3 Construct a scale model of the Earth’s interior

 Indicator 7.a.4 Construct a model of convection cells deep within the Earth

 Indicator 7.a.5 Relate fold and fault structures to the forces that form them

 Indicator 7.a.6 Compare the erosive and depositional effects of wind, water, and ice

 Indicator 7.a.7 Explain conditions that affect a stream’s ability to shape the land

 Indicator 7.a.8 Comprehend the characteristics of each physiographic province of VA

 Indicator 7.a.9 Analyze the geologic history of Virginia

 Indicator 7.a.10 Integrate the rock cycle, plate tectonics, and Virginia’s geology

 Indicator 7.a.11 Interpret the physiographic patterns of North America

Benchmark 7.b
Investigate and Understand Tectonic Processes

 Indicator 7.b.1 Compare the types of plate boundaries & how their features are formed

 Indicator 7.b.2 Analyze composition/structure of continental & oceanic lithospheres

 Indicator 7.b.3 Compare the rates of movement of the lithospheric plates

 Indicator 7.b.4 Analyze the various structures produced in convergent plate boundaries

 Indicator 7.b.5 Apply the Plate Tectonics Theory to the formation of continents, etc.

 Indicator 7.b.6 Describe the characteristics of the different types of seismic waves

 Indicator 7.b.7 Analyze how seismic data helps to determine earth’s internal structure

 Indicator 7.b.8 Compare/contrast various types of volcanism and geothermal activity

 Indicator 7.b.9 Relate volcanic activity to magmatic viscosity & chemical composition

 Indicator 7.b.10 Analyze the body of evidence for Plate Tectonics Theory

 Indicator 7.b.11 Analyze how collisions/rifting created Virginia's current physiography

 Indicator 7.b.12 Compare the tectonic activity of North America's east and west coasts

 Indicator 7.b.13 Offer interpretations of an area's tectonic history based on rocks

 Indicator 7.b.14 Interpret various graphical representations to find plate boundaries

 Indicator 7.b.15 Integrate the theory of isostasy with its relationship to land forms

 Indicator 7.b.16 Explain the difference between seismic intensity and magnitude

 Indicator 7.b.17 Use GIS to design an earthquake emergency response plan for a city

SCI.ES
Standard 8
UNDERSTAND THAT FRESHWATER RESOURCES ARE AFFECTED BY MANY THINGS

Benchmark 8.a
Investigate and Understand the Processes of Soil Development

 Indicator 8.a.1 Diagram the development of soil profiles and discuss mature soils

Benchmark 8.b
Investigate and Understand the Development of Karst Topography

 Indicator 8.b.1 Analyze the formation of karst topography

Benchmark 8.c
Identify Groundwater Zones and the Water Table

 Indicator 8.c.1 Interpret a simple groundwater diagram

 Indicator 8.c.2 Explain how porosity & permeability affect the ground water movement

 Indicator 8.c.3 Analyze the presence of groundwater in various types of rock terrains

Benchmark 8.d
Identify Sources of Fresh Water with Reference to the Hydrologic Cycle

 Indicator 8.d.1 Interpret a simple hydrologic cycle diagram

 Indicator 8.d.2 Identify sources of fresh water with reference to the hydrologic cycle

 Indicator 8.d.3 Calculate and interpret a local water budget

Benchmark 8.e
Understand Dependence on Freshwater Resources and Water Quality

 Indicator 8.e.1 Examine dependence on freshwater and the importance of water quality

 Indicator 8.e.2 Analyze the relationship between salt-water intrusion & buried craters

Benchmark 8.f
Identify Watershed Systems in Virginia, Including the Chesapeake Bay

 Indicator 8.f.1 Identify on a map the major watersheds in Virginia

SCI.ES
Standard 9
UNDERSTAND THAT THE HISTORY OF EARTH & LIFE CAN BE INFERRED FROM ROCKS

Benchmark 9.a
Understand That Traces/Remains of Ancient Life Are Preserved in Rocks

 Indicator 9.a.1 Describe the development of life forms on the Earth

Benchmark 9.b
Investigate and Understand the Methods of Dating Bodies of Rock

 Indicator 9.b.1 Differentiate between relative and absolute time

 Indicator 9.b.2 Discuss the laws of superposition, uniformitarianism & cross-cutting

 Indicator 9.b.3 Explain how radioactive isotopes are used to find earth's absolute age

Benchmark 9.c
Understand Use of Absolute & Relative Dating to Determine Age of Rocks

 Indicator 9.c.1 Analyze a sequence of rocks to infer the sequence's history over time

 Indicator 9.c.2 Calculate the age of a rock sample by using an isotope's half-life

Benchmark 9.d
Understand That Rocks/Fossils from Many Periods/Epochs Are Found in VA

 Indicator 9.d.1 Analyze the different types of fossils found in Virginia

SCI.ES
Standard 10
UNDERSTAND THAT OCEANS ARE COMPLEX SYSTEMS SUBJECT TO VARIATIONS

Benchmark 10.a
Understand Physical and Chemical Changes Related to Tides, Waves, etc.

 Indicator 10.a.1 Explain water movement near shorelines: long shore currents & tides

 Indicator 10.a.2 Compare and contrast the movement of surface and deep ocean currents

 Indicator 10.a.3 Analyze role of ocean currents in heat distribution; Predict changes

 Indicator 10.a.4 Explain upwellings and how they impact ocean productivity

 Indicator 10.a.5 Describe the ways in which waves form and interact

 Indicator 10.a.6 Discuss the factors which may have caused the ice ages

 Indicator 10.a.7 Discuss the geological implications of continental glaciation

 Indicator 10.a.8 Provide examples of events that can change a coastal area's sea level

 Indicator 10.a.9 Explain the density stratification of estuaries

 Indicator 10.a.10 Differentiate between tsunamis and common ocean waves

 Indicator 10.a.11 Evaluate importance of salt water marshes on life in the deeper seas

Benchmark 10.b
Understand the Importance of Environmental and Geologic Implications

 Indicator 10.b.1 Analyze the potential impact of a major environmental disaster

Benchmark 10.c
Investigate and Understand Systems Interactions

 Indicator 10.c.1 Describe the ways in which energy is transferred: sun/atmosphere/ocean

 Indicator 10.c.2 Relate important ocean conditions to weather on the continents

 Indicator 10.c.3 Compare Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico water temperatures

 Indicator 10.c.4 Evaluate role of the marine environment re: carbon dioxide and oxygen

 Indicator 10.c.5 Examine the causes of global temperature variation

Benchmark 10.d
Understand That Features of the Seafloor Reflect Tectonic Processes

 Indicator 10.d.1 Describe the shape and composition of ocean basins

 Indicator 10.d.2 Explain how volcanic island chains are formed

 Indicator 10.d.3 Cite evidence supporting the theories of continental drift, etc.

 Indicator 10.d.4 Explain significance of the conditions around deep-see volcanic vents

Benchmark 10.e
Understand the Economic and Public Policy Issues Concerning Oceans

 Indicator 10.e.1 Discuss economic & public policy issues concerning oceans & the coast

 Indicator 10.e.2 Determine effects of human interactions on the ocean & coastal zone

 Indicator 10.e.3 Describe how the Chesapeake Bay can be polluted by sources far away

SCI.ES
Standard 11
INVESTIGATE AND UNDERSTAND THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

Benchmark 11.a
Understand Evidence for Atmospheric Composition Changes over Time

 Indicator 11.a.1 Analyze scientific evidence for atmospheric change over geologic time

 Indicator 11.a.2 Discuss the Earth’s place in the “habitability zone"

Benchmark 11.b
Understand Theories of the Effects of Early Life on the Atmosphere

 Indicator 11.b.1 Explain current theories relating to the origin of our atmosphere

Benchmark 11.c
Investigate and Understand Atmospheric Regulation Mechanisms

 Indicator 11.c.1 Relate composition/structure of the atmospheric layers to altitude

 Indicator 11.c.2 Analyze how the Earth’s surface & atmosphere gets energy from the sun

 Indicator 11.c.3 Compare and contrast the climate feedback mechanisms of the planets

Benchmark 11.d
Understand Potential Changes to the Atmosphere and Climate

 Indicator 11.d.1 Analyze climate feedback mechanisms that control Earth's temperature

 Indicator 11.d.2 Explain the causes of climatic change and assess the consequences

 Indicator 11.d.3 Explain how volcanos/meteor impacts could affect Earth's atmosphere

 Indicator 11.d.4 Describe the chemical reactions involved in stratospheric ozone

 Indicator 11.d.5 Describe the chemical reactions involved in acid rain

SCI.ES
Standard 12
ENERGY TRANSFER BETWEEN THE SUN & THE EARTH DRIVES WEATHER & CLIMATE

Benchmark 12.a
Observe and Collect Weather Data

 Indicator 12.a.1 Understand that weather is measurable, predictable, describes changes

 Indicator 12.a.2 Read and interpret weather data from appropriate instruments

 Indicator 12.a.3 Read and interpret weather station models

Benchmark 12.b
Predict Weather Patterns

 Indicator 12.b.1 Describe different types of clouds and why they form

 Indicator 12.b.2 Compare & contrast high & low pressure systems & their weather

 Indicator 12.b.3 Predict weather based on cloud type, temperature & barometric pressure

 Indicator 12.b.4 Read and interpret a weather map containing fronts, isobars, isotherms

Benchmark 12.c
Understand Severe Weather Occurrences

 Indicator 12.c.1 Distinguish between tornadoes and hurricanes

 Indicator 12.c.2 Analyze the impact of satellite technology on weather prediction

 Indicator 12.c.3 Differentiate between severe weather watches and warnings

Benchmark 12.d
Understand Weather Phenomena, Radiation, Conduction, and Convection

 Indicator 12.d.1 Compare and contrast the four methods of energy transfer

 Indicator 12.d.2 Label diagram: the interaction of Earth’s atmosphere & energy transfer

 Indicator 12.d.3 Discuss pressure differences, Coriolis effect & global wind patterns

 Indicator 12.d.4 Identify and describe the direction of local winds

 Indicator 12.d.5 Discuss how clouds affect incoming and outgoing solar energy

 Indicator 12.d.6 Differentiate between cold & warm fronts, stationary fronts, etc

 Indicator 12.d.7 Understand that climate is measurable, predictable, describes patterns

 Indicator 12.d.8 Discuss the variables that affect the climate of an area

 Indicator 12.d.9 Read and interpret climate graphs

 Indicator 12.d.10 Label diagram: global climate zones/surface movement of ocean currents

 Indicator 12.d.11 Compare the climate of a city to that of the surrounding countryside

 Indicator 12.d.12 Identify and explain various atmospheric phenomena

SCI.ES
Standard 13
UNDERSTAND CONCEPTS RELATED TO THE ORIGIN & EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE

Benchmark 13.a
Investigate and Understand Cosmology Including the Big Bang Theory

 Indicator 13.a.1 Explain the origin of the Universe as postulated by Big Bang Theory

 Indicator 13.a.2 Recognize that not all the elements were created in the Big Bang

 Indicator 13.a.3 Discuss how changing technology is helping astronomers explore

 Indicator 13.a.4 Use spectral shifts and magnitude to determine the Hubble Constant

 Indicator 13.a.5 Compare & contrast the dominant theories on the universe's age & size

Benchmark 13.b
Understand the Origin & Evolution of Stars, Star Systems, and Galaxies

 Indicator 13.b.1 Explain how the force of gravitational attraction formed stars

 Indicator 13.b.2 Explain the opposing forces that hold a star together

 Indicator 13.b.3 Construct an H-R Diagram and use to compare & contrast star features

 Indicator 13.b.4 Use the H-R diagram to classify stars

 Indicator 13.b.5 Contrast the life span & energy output of a blue giant star to the sun

 Indicator 13.b.6 Analyze the various fusion products of high mass stars

 Indicator 13.b.7 Explain the various ways distances to stars are measured

 Indicator 13.b.8 Explain how the force of gravitational attraction formed galaxies

 Indicator 13.b.9 Describe the Milky Way galaxy

 Indicator 13.b.10 Describe different types of galaxies and compare them to the Milky Way

 Indicator 13.b.11 Explain the potential origin and role of ultra massive black holes

 Indicator 13.b.12 Identify & explain the best current idea for the solar system's origin

 Indicator 13.b.13 Evaluate the probability of travel to nearby solar systems

Essential - Standard, benchmark, or indicator from the VDOE Standards of Learning document. In the absence of VDOE standards for a given course, content subject to testing such as AP and IB can be labeled Essential.
Expected - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies to provide a context, a bridge, or an enhancement to the Essential SBIs.
Extended - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies generally used to differentiate instruction for advanced learners (Honors/GT)