Science Curriculum
  IB Chemistry

The Diploma Programme chemistry course includes the essential principles of the subject but also, through selection of options, allows teachers some flexibility to tailor the course to meet the needs of their students. The course is available at both standard level (SL) and higher level (HL), and therefore accommodates students who wish to study science in higher education and those who do not.

Last Updated: 06/18/09 01:28 PM
Standard 1

Benchmark 1.1
The Mole Concept and Avogadro's Constant
Indicator 1.1.1
Apply the mole concept to substances
Indicator 1.1.2
Determine the number of particles and the amount of substance (moles)

Benchmark 1.2
Indicator 1.2.1
Define the terms relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass
Indicator 1.2.2
Calculate the mass of one mole of a species from its formula
Indicator 1.2.3
Solve problems involving moles, mass and molar mass relationships
Indicator 1.2.4
Distinguish between the terms empirical formula and molecular formula
Indicator 1.2.5
Determine the empirical formula from the percentage composition
Indicator 1.2.6
Determine the molecular formula using the empirical formula and data

Benchmark 1.3
Chemical Equations
Indicator 1.3.1
Deduce chemical equations when all reactants and products are given
Indicator 1.3.2
Identify the mole ratio of any two species in a chemical equation
Indicator 1.3.3
Apply the state symbols (s), (l), (g) and (aq)

Benchmark 1.4
Mass and Gaseous Volume Relationships in Chemical Reactions
Indicator 1.4.1
Calculate theoretical yields from chemical equations
Indicator 1.4.2
Determine the limiting reactant and the reactant in excess
Indicator 1.4.3
Solve problems involving theoretical, experimental & percentage yield
Indicator 1.4.4
Apply Avogadro’s law to calculate reacting volumes of gases
Indicator 1.4.5
Apply the concept of molar volume at standard temperature and pressure
Indicator 1.4.6
Solve problems involving the relationship between temp/pressure/volume
Indicator 1.4.7
Solve problems using the ideal gas equation
Indicator 1.4.8
Analyse graphs relating to the ideal gas equation

Benchmark 1.5
Indicator 1.5.1
Distinguish between the terms solute, solvent, solution, concentration
Indicator 1.5.2
Solve problems involving concentration, amount of solute and volume
Standard 2

Benchmark 2.1
The Atom
Indicator 2.1.1
State the position of protons, neutrons and electrons in the atom
Indicator 2.1.2
State the relative masses & charges of protons, neutrons, electrons
Indicator 2.1.3
Define the terms mass number, atomic number and isotopes of an element
Indicator 2.1.4
Deduce the symbol for an isotope given its mass # and atomic #
Indicator 2.1.5
Calculate the number of protons, neutrons & electrons in atoms & ions
Indicator 2.1.6
Compare the properties of the isotopes of an element
Indicator 2.1.7
Discuss the uses of radioisotopes

Benchmark 2.2
The Mass Spectrometer
Indicator 2.2.1
Describe and explain the operation of a mass spectrometer
Indicator 2.2.2
Describe how the mass spectrometer is used to determine atomic mass
Indicator 2.2.3
Calculate non-integer relative atomic masses and abundance of isotopes

Benchmark 2.3
Electron Arrangement
Indicator 2.3.1
Describe the electromagnetic spectrum
Indicator 2.3.2
Distinguish between a continuous spectrum and a line spectrum
Indicator 2.3.3
Explain how the lines in the emission spectrum relate to energy levels
Indicator 2.3.4
Deduce the electron arrangement for atoms and ions up to Z = 20
Standard 3

Benchmark 3.1
The Periodic Table
Indicator 3.1.1
Describe the arrangement of elements in the periodic table: atomic #
Indicator 3.1.2
Distinguish between the terms group and period
Indicator 3.1.3
Relate an element's electron arrangements to periodic table position
Indicator 3.1.4
Relate the number of electrons in the highest level to periodic table

Benchmark 3.2
Physical Properties
Indicator 3.2.1
Define the terms first ionization energy and electronegativity
Indicator 3.2.2
Describe and explain the trends for the alkali metals and the halogens
Indicator 3.2.3
Describe and explain the trends in for elements across period 3
Indicator 3.2.4
Compare the relative electronegativity values of two or more elements

Benchmark 3.3
Chemical Properties
Indicator 3.3.1
Compare/contrast the chemical properties of elements in the same group
Indicator 3.3.2
Discuss the changes in nature of the oxides across period 3
Standard 4

Benchmark 4.1
Ionic Bonding
Indicator 4.1.1
Describe the ionic bond as the electrostatic attraction between ions
Indicator 4.1.2
Describe how ions can be formed as a result of electron transfer
Indicator 4.1.3
Deduce which ions will be formed by elements in groups 1, 2 and 3
Indicator 4.1.4
Deduce which ions will be formed by elements in groups 5, 6, and 7
Indicator 4.1.5
State that transition elements can form more than one ion
Indicator 4.1.6
Predict whether a compound of two elements would be ionic
Indicator 4.1.7
State the formula of common polyatomic ions formed by nonmetals
Indicator 4.1.8
Describe the lattice structure of ionic compounds

Benchmark 4.2
Covalent Bonding
Indicator 4.2.1
Describe the covalent bond
Indicator 4.2.2
Describe how the covalent bond is formed
Indicator 4.2.3
Deduce the Lewis (electron dot) structures of molecules and ions
Indicator 4.2.4
State the relationship between the number of bonds, bond length, etc.
Indicator 4.2.5
Predict whether a compound of two elements would be covalent
Indicator 4.2.6
Predict the relative polarity of bonds from electronegativity values
Indicator 4.2.7
Predict the shape and bond angles for species using VSEPR theory
Indicator 4.2.8
Predict whether or not a molecule is polar
Indicator 4.2.9
Describe/compare the structure & bonding in the 3 allotropes of carbon
Indicator 4.2.10
Describe the structure of and bonding in silicon and silicon dioxide

Benchmark 4.3
Intermolecular Forces
Indicator 4.3.1
Describe the types of intermolecular forces and explain how they arise
Indicator 4.3.2
Describe & explain how intermolecular forces affect boiling points

Benchmark 4.4
Metallic Bonding
Indicator 4.4.1
Describe a metallic bond
Indicator 4.4.2
Explain the electrical conductivity and malleability of metals

Benchmark 4.5
Physical Properties
Indicator 4.5.1
Compare the properties of substances resulting from different bonding
Standard 5

Benchmark 5.1
Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
Indicator 5.1.1
Define exothermic rxn, endothermic rxn, standard enthalpy change
Indicator 5.1.2
State that combustion and neutralization are exothermic processes
Indicator 5.1.3
Relate temperature change, enthalpy change & endo- or exothermic
Indicator 5.1.4
Deduce the relative stabilities of reactants and products

Benchmark 5.2
Calculation of Enthalpy Changes
Indicator 5.2.1
Calculate the heat energy change of a pure substance temp. change
Indicator 5.2.2
Design experimental procedures for measuring heat energy changes
Indicator 5.2.3
Calculate the enthalpy change for a reaction using experimental data
Indicator 5.2.4
Evaluate the results of experiments to determine enthalpy changes

Benchmark 5.3
Hess-s Law
Indicator 5.3.1
Determine the enthalpy change of a rxn that is the sum of 2 or 3 rxns

Benchmark 5.4
Bond Enthalpies
Indicator 5.4.1
Define the term average bond enthalpy.
Indicator 5.4.2
Explain why some reactions are exothermic and others are endothermic
Standard 6

Benchmark 6.1
Rates of Reaction
Indicator 6.1.1
Define the term rate of reaction
Indicator 6.1.2
Describe suitable experimental procedures for measuring rates of rxns
Indicator 6.1.3
Analyse data from rate experiments

Benchmark 6.2
Collision Theory
Indicator 6.2.1
Describe the kinetic theory
Indicator 6.2.2
Define the term activation energy
Indicator 6.2.3
Describe the collision theory
Indicator 6.2.4
Use the collision theory to predict and explain effects on a rxn rate
Indicator 6.2.5
Sketch and explain the Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution curve
Indicator 6.2.6
Describe the effect of a catalyst on a chemical reaction
Indicator 6.2.7
Sketch & explain Maxwell-Boltzmann curves for rxns w/ & w/o catalysts
Standard 7

Benchmark 7.1
Dynamic Equilibrium
Indicator 7.1.1
Outline characteristics of chemical & physical systems in equilibrium

Benchmark 7.2
The Position of Equilibrium
Indicator 7.2.1
Deduce the equilibrium constant expression from a homogeneous rxn eqn
Indicator 7.2.2
Deduce extent of a rxn from the magnitude of the equilibrium constant
Indicator 7.2.3
Apply Le Chatelier's principle to predict the effects of changes
Indicator 7.2.4
State and explain the effect of a catalyst on an equilibrium reaction
Indicator 7.2.5
Apply the concepts of kinetics and equilibrium to industrial processes
Standard 8

Benchmark 8.1
Theories of Acids and Bases
Indicator 8.1.1
Define acids & bases according to the Brønsted-Lowry & Lewis theories
Indicator 8.1.2
Deduce whether or not a species could act as an acid or base
Indicator 8.1.3
Deduce the formula of the conjugate acid (or base)

Benchmark 8.2
Properties of Acids and Bases
Indicator 8.2.1
Outline the characteristic properties of acids & bases in aqueous soln

Benchmark 8.3
Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
Indicator 8.3.1
Distinguish between strong and weak acids and bases
Indicator 8.3.2
State whether a given acid or base is strong or weak
Indicator 8.3.3
Distinguish between strong/weak acids and bases: experimental data

Benchmark 8.4
The pH Scale
Indicator 8.4.1
Distinguish between aqueous solns that are acidic, neutral or alkaline
Indicator 8.4.2
Identify which of two or more aqueous solns is more acidic or alkaline
Indicator 8.4.3
State that each change of 1 pH unit represents a 10-fold change in H+
Indicator 8.4.4
Deduce changes in [H+(aq)] when the pH of a solution changes
Standard 9

Benchmark 9.1
Introduction to Oxidation and Reduction
Indicator 9.1.1
Define oxidation and reduction in terms of electron loss and gain
Indicator 9.1.2
Deduce the oxidation number of an element in a compound
Indicator 9.1.3
State the names of compounds using oxidation numbers
Indicator 9.1.4
Deduce if an element undergoes oxidation/reduction using oxidation #s

Benchmark 9.2
Redox Equations
Indicator 9.2.1
Deduce simple oxidation and reduction half-equations from the species
Indicator 9.2.2
Deduce redox equations using half equations
Indicator 9.2.3
Define the terms oxidizing agent and reducing agent
Indicator 9.2.4
Identify the oxidizing and reducing agents in redox equations

Benchmark 9.3
Indicator 9.3.1
Deduce a reactivity series based on the chemical behaviour of agents
Indicator 9.3.2
Deduce the feasibility of a redox reaction from a reactivity series

Benchmark 9.4
Voltaic Cells
Indicator 9.4.1
Explain how a redox reaction produces electricity in a voltaic cell
Indicator 9.4.2
State that oxidation occurs at anode; reduction occurs at cathode

Benchmark 9.5
Electrolytic cells
Indicator 9.5.1
Describe, using a diagram, the components of an electrolytic cell
Indicator 9.5.2
State that oxidation occurs at anode and reduction occurs at cathode
Indicator 9.5.3
Describe how current is conducted in an electrolytic cell
Indicator 9.5.4
Deduce the products of the electrolysis of a molten salt
Standard 10

Benchmark 10.1
Indicator 10.1.1
Describe the features of a homologous series
Indicator 10.1.2
Explain the trends in boiling points of members of a homologous series
Indicator 10.1.3
Distinguish between empirical, molecular and structural formulas
Indicator 10.1.4
Describe structural isomers
Indicator 10.1.5
Deduce structural formulas for the isomers of the non-cyclic alkanes
Indicator 10.1.6
Apply IUPAC rules for naming the isomers of the non-cyclic alkanes
Indicator 10.1.7
Deduce structural formulas for the isomers of straight-chain alkenes
Indicator 10.1.8
Apply IUPAC rules for naming the isomers of the straight-chain alkenes
Indicator 10.1.9
Deduce structural formulas for compounds up to 6 C & functional group
Indicator 10.1.10
Apply IUPAC rules for naming compounds up to 6 C & functional groups
Indicator 10.1.11
Identify functional groups when present in structural formulas
Indicator 10.1.12
Identify primary, secondary and tertiary carbon atoms in alcohols
Indicator 10.1.13
Discuss volatility & solubility in H2O of compounds w/ functional grps

Benchmark 10.2
Indicator 10.2.1
Explain low reactivity of alkanes in terms of bond enthalpies/polarity
Indicator 10.2.2
Describe, using eqns, complete and incomplete combustion of alkanes
Indicator 10.2.3
Describe, using equations: rxns of methane and ethane with Cl and Br
Indicator 10.2.4
Explain rxns of methane & ethane w/ Cl & Br in terms of free-radicals

Benchmark 10.3
Indicator 10.3.1
Describe, using equations, the rxns of alkenes with H and halogens
Indicator 10.3.2
Describe, using equations, the reactions of symmetrical alkenes
Indicator 10.3.3
Distinguish between alkanes and alkenes using bromine water
Indicator 10.3.4
Outline the polymerization of alkenes
Indicator 10.3.5
Outline the economic importance of the reactions of alkenes

Benchmark 10.4
Indicator 10.4.1
Describe, using equations, the complete combustion of alcohols
Indicator 10.4.2
Describe, using equations, the oxidation reactions of alcohols
Indicator 10.4.3
Determine products formed by the oxidation of primary & sec. alcohols

Benchmark 10.5
Indicator 10.5.1
Describe, using eqns, the substitution rxns of halogenoalkanes w/ NaOH
Indicator 10.5.2
Explain substitution rxns of halogenoalkanes w/ NaOH in SN1, SN2 terms

Benchmark 10.6
Reaction Pathways
Indicator 10.6.1
Deduce reaction pathways given the starting materials and the product
Standard 11

Benchmark 11.1
Uncertainty and Error in Measurement
Indicator 11.1.1
Describe & give examples of random uncertainties and systematic errors
Indicator 11.1.2
Distinguish between precision and accuracy
Indicator 11.1.3
Describe how the effects of random uncertainties may be reduced
Indicator 11.1.4
State random uncertainty as an uncertainty range
Indicator 11.1.5
State results of calculations to appropriate # of significant figures

Benchmark 11.2
Uncertainties in Calculated Results
Indicator 11.2.1
State uncertainties as absolute and percentage uncertainties
Indicator 11.2.2
Determine the uncertainties in results

Benchmark 11.3
Graphical Techniques
Indicator 11.3.1
Sketch graphs to represent dependences and interpret graph behaviour
Indicator 11.3.2
Construct graphs from experimental data
Indicator 11.3.3
Draw best-fit lines through data points on a graph
Indicator 11.3.4
Determine the values of physical quantities from graphs
Standard 12

Benchmark 12.1
Electron Configuration
Indicator 12.1.1
Explain how 1st ionization energy evidence = energy levels in atoms
Indicator 12.1.2
Explain relationship of ionization energy to electron configuration
Indicator 12.1.3
State relative energies of s, p, d, f orbitals in single energy level
Indicator 12.1.4
State the maximum number of orbitals in a given energy level
Indicator 12.1.5
Draw the shape of an s orbital and the p orbitals
Indicator 12.1.6
Apply Aufbau principle, Hund's rule and Pauli exclusion principle
Standard 13

Benchmark 13.1
Trends Across Period 3
Indicator 13.1.1
Explain physical states/electrical conductivity of chlorides & oxides
Indicator 13.1.2
Describe rxns of chlorine and the chlorides in 13.1.1 with water

Benchmark 13.2
First-row d-block Elements
Indicator 13.2.1
List the characteristic properties of transition elements
Indicator 13.2.2
Explain why Sc and Zn are not considered to be transition elements
Indicator 13.2.3
Explain variable oxidation number in transition elements' ions
Indicator 13.2.4
Define the term ligand
Indicator 13.2.5
Describe & explain the formation of complexes of d-block elements
Indicator 13.2.6
Explain why some complexes of d-block elements are coloured
Indicator 13.2.7
State examples of catalytic action of transition elements/compounds
Indicator 13.2.8
Outline economic significance of catalysts in Contact/Haber processes
Standard 14

Benchmark 14.1
Shapes of Molecules and Ions
Indicator 14.1.1
Predict shape & bond angles for species w/ 5 & 6 neg. charge centers

Benchmark 14.2
Indicator 14.2.1
Describe s and p bonds
Indicator 14.2.2
Explain hybridization in terms of the mixing of atomic orbitals
Indicator 14.2.3
Relate Lewis structures, molecular shapes, types of hybridization

Benchmark 14.3
Delocalization of Electrons
Indicator 14.3.1
Describe the delocalization of p electrons & its effect on structures
Standard 15

Benchmark 15.1
Standard Enthalpy Changes of Reaction
Indicator 15.1.1
Define and apply standard state and standard enthalpy change terms
Indicator 15.1.2
Determine the enthalpy change of a rxn using standard enthalpy changes

Benchmark 15.2
Born-Haber Cycle
Indicator 15.2.1
Define and apply the terms lattice enthalpy and electron affinity
Indicator 15.2.2
Explain how relative sizes & charges of ions affect lattice enthalpies
Indicator 15.2.3
Construct & use Born-Haber cycle for groups 1 & 2 oxides and chlorides
Indicator 15.2.4
Discuss theoretical vs. experimental lattice enthalpy values

Benchmark 15.3
Indicator 15.3.1
State and explain the factors that increase entropy in a system
Indicator 15.3.2
Predict whether the entropy change for a rxn is positive or negative
Indicator 15.3.3
Calculate the standard entropy change for a rxn using standard values

Benchmark 15.4
Indicator 15.4.1
Predict whether a rxn will be spontaneous using ­the sign of delta G
Indicator 15.4.2
Calculate delta G for a reaction
Indicator 15.4.3
Predict the effect of a change in temp. on the spontaneity of a rxn
Standard 16

Benchmark 16.1
Rate Expression
Indicator 16.1.1
Distinguish between rate constant, overall order of rxn, order of rxn
Indicator 16.1.2
Deduce the rate expression for reaction from experimental data
Indicator 16.1.3
Solve problems involving the rate expression
Indicator 16.1.4
Sketch, identify, analyse graphical representations for 0,1st,2nd rxns

Benchmark 16.2
Reaction Mechanism
Indicator 16.2.1
Explain rxns can occur by >1 step; slowest step is rate-determining
Indicator 16.2.2
Relate rxn mechanism, order of rxn, and rate-determining step

Benchmark 16.3
Activation Energy
Indicator 16.3.1
Describe qualitatively the relationship between k and T
Indicator 16.3.2
Determine activation energy values by a graphical method
Standard 17

Benchmark 17.1
Liquid-Vapour Equilibrium
Indicator 17.1.1
Describe the equilibrium between liquid, its vapour and temp. changes
Indicator 17.1.2
Sketch graphs showing the relationship between vapour pressure & temp
Indicator 17.1.3
Explain relationships: enthalpy of vaporization, boiling point, etc.

Benchmark 17.2
The Equilibrium Law
Indicator 17.2.1
Solve homogeneous equilibrium problems using the expression for Kc
Standard 18

Benchmark 18.1
Calculations Involving Acids and Bases
Indicator 18.1.1
State the expression for the ionic product constant of water
Indicator 18.1.2
Deduce the concentration of H+ and OH- for water at different temps
Indicator 18.1.3
Solve problems involving the concentration of H+ and OH-, pH, pOH
Indicator 18.1.4
State the eqn for the rxn of any weak acid or weak base w/ water
Indicator 18.1.5
Solve problems involving solutions of weak acids and bases
Indicator 18.1.6
Identify strengths of acids and bases using values of Ka,Kb,pKa, pKb

Benchmark 18.2
Buffer Solutions
Indicator 18.2.1
Describe the composition of a buffer solution and explain its action
Indicator 18.2.2
Solve problems involving composition and pH of specified buffer system

Benchmark 18.3
Salt Hydrolysis
Indicator 18.3.1
Deduce whether salts form acidic, alkaline or neutral aqueous solns

Benchmark 18.4
Acid-Base Titrations
Indicator 18.4.1
Sketch the general shapes of graphs of pH vs. volume for titrations

Benchmark 18.5
Indicator 18.5.1
Describe qualitatively the action of an acid–base indicator
Indicator 18.5.2
Explain how the pH range of an acid-base indicator relates to its pKa
Indicator 18.5.3
Identify an appropriate indicator for a titration
Standard 19

Benchmark 19.1
Standard Electrode Potentials
Indicator 19.1.1
Describe the standard hydrogen electrode
Indicator 19.1.2
Define the term standard electrode potential
Indicator 19.1.3
Calculate cell potentials using standard electrode potentials
Indicator 19.1.4
Predict whether a reaction will be spontaneous

Benchmark 19.2
Indicator 19.2.1
Predict and explain the products of electrolysis of aqueous solutions
Indicator 19.2.2
Determine the relative amounts of products formed during electrolysis
Indicator 19.2.3
Describe the use of electrolysis in electroplating
Standard 20

Benchmark 20.1
Indicator 20.1.1
Deduce structural formulas for compounds containing up to 6 carbons
Indicator 20.1.2
Apply IUPAC rules for naming compounds containing up to 6 carbons

Benchmark 20.2
Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
Indicator 20.2.1
Explain why the hydroxide ion is a better nucleophile than water
Indicator 20.2.2
Explain how the halogen ID affects the nucleophilic substitution rate
Indicator 20.2.3
Explain how the type of halogenalkane affects nucleophilic sub. rate
Indicator 20.2.4
Describe the substitution reactions of halogenoalkanes
Indicator 20.2.5
Explain the reactions of primary halogenoalkanes with ammonia, etc.
Indicator 20.2.6
Describe the reduction of nitriles using H and a nickel catalyst

Benchmark 20.3
Elimination Reactions
Indicator 20.3.1
Describe, using equations, the elimination of HBr from bromoalkanes
Indicator 20.3.2
Describe the mechanism for the elimination of HBr from bromoalkanes

Benchmark 20.4
Condensation Reactions
Indicator 20.4.1
Describe rxns of alcohols with carboxylic acids; state uses of esters
Indicator 20.4.2
Describe, using equations, the rxns of amines with carboxylic acids
Indicator 20.4.3
Deduce the structures of polymers formed in the reactions of alcohols
Indicator 20.4.4
Deduce the structures of polymers formed in the reactions of amines
Indicator 20.4.5
Outline the economic importance of condensation reactions

Benchmark 20.5
Reaction Pathways
Indicator 20.5.1
Deduce reaction pathways given the starting materials and product

Benchmark 20.6
Indicator 20.6.1
Describe stereoisomers
Indicator 20.6.2
Describe and explain geometrical isomerism in non-cyclic alkenes
Indicator 20.6.3
Describe and explain geometrical isomerism in C3 and C4 cycloalkanes
Indicator 20.6.4
Explain the difference in phys. & chem. props of geometrical isomers
Indicator 20.6.5
Describe and explain optical isomerism in simple organic molecules
Indicator 20.6.6
Outline use of a polarimeter in distinguishing between optical isomers
Indicator 20.6.7
Compare the physical and chemical properties of enantiomers
Standard A

Benchmark A.1
Analytical Techniques
Indicator A.1.1
State the reasons for using analytical techniques
Indicator A.1.2
State that a compound's structure can be determined by many techniques

Benchmark A.2
Principles of Spectroscopy
Indicator A.2.1
Describe the electromagnetic spectrum
Indicator A.2.2
Distinguish between absorption and emission spectra
Indicator A.2.3
Describe the atomic & molecular processes in which energy is absorbed

Benchmark A.3
Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy
Indicator A.3.1
Describe the operating principles of a double-beam IR spectrometer
Indicator A.3.2
Describe how information from an IR spectrum is used to identify bonds
Indicator A.3.3
Explain what occurs at molecular level during IR radiation absorption
Indicator A.3.4
Analyse IR spectra of organic compounds

Benchmark A.4
Mass Spectrometry
Indicator A.4.1
Determine the molecular mass of compound from the molecular ion peak
Indicator A.4.2
Analyse fragmentation patterns in a mass spectrum to find structure

Benchmark A.5
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
Indicator A.5.1
Deduce the structure of a compound given 1H NMR spectrum information
Indicator A.5.2
Outline how NMR is used in body scanners

Benchmark A.6
Atomic Absorption (AA) Spectroscopy
Indicator A.6.1
State the uses of AA spectroscopy
Indicator A.6.2
Describe the principles of atomic absorption
Indicator A.6.3
Describe the use of the components of the AA spectrophotometer
Indicator A.6.4
Determine the concentration of a solution from a calibration curve

Benchmark A.7
Indicator A.7.1
State the reasons for using chromatography
Indicator A.7.2
Explain that chromatographic techniques use adsorption & partition
Indicator A.7.3
Outline the use of paper, thin-layer, and column chromatography

Benchmark A.8
Visible and Ultraviolet (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy (HL)
Indicator A.8.1
Describe effect of different ligands on the splitting of d orbitals
Indicator A.8.2
Describe factors that affect the colour of transition metal complexes
Indicator A.8.3
State that organic molecules w/ a double bond absorb UV radiation
Indicator A.8.4
Describe effect of the conjugation of double bonds on absorbed light
Indicator A.8.5
Predict if a particular molecule will absorb UV or visible radiation
Indicator A.8.6
Determine the concentration of a solution from a calibration curve

Benchmark A.9
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy (HL)
Indicator A.9.1
Explain the use of TMS as the reference standard
Indicator A.9.2
Analyse 1H NMR spectra

Benchmark A.10
Chromatography (HL)
Indicator A.10.1
Describe the techniques of GLC and HPLC
Indicator A.10.2
Deduce which chromatographic technique is best for particular mixture
Standard B

Benchmark B.1
Indicator B.1.1
Calculate the energy value of a food from enthalpy of combustion data

Benchmark B.2
Indicator B.2.1
Draw the general formula of 2-amino acids
Indicator B.2.2
Describe the characteristic properties of 2-amino acids
Indicator B.2.3
Describe the condensation rxn of 2-amino acids to form polypeptides
Indicator B.2.4
Describe primary, secondary, tertiary & quaternary protein structures
Indicator B.2.5
Explain how proteins can be analyzed by chromatography/electrophoresis
Indicator B.2.6
List the major functions of proteins in the body

Benchmark B.3
Indicator B.3.1
Describe the structural features of monosaccharides
Indicator B.3.2
Draw straight-chain and ring structural formulas of glucose & fructose
Indicator B.3.3
Describe condensation of monosaccharides to form di/poly saccharides
Indicator B.3.4
List the major functions of carbohydrates in the human body
Indicator B.3.5
Compare the structural properties of starch and cellulose
Indicator B.3.6
State what is meant by the term dietary fibre
Indicator B.3.7
Describe the importance of a diet high in dietary fibre

Benchmark B.4
Indicator B.4.1
Compare the composition of the 3 types of lipids found in the body
Indicator B.4.2
Outline the difference between HDL & LDL cholesterol; importance
Indicator B.4.3
Describe the difference between saturated & unsaturated fatty acids
Indicator B.4.4
Compare the structures of linoleic & linolenic fatty acids; importance
Indicator B.4.5
Define iodine number: calculate # of C=C double bonds using addn rxns
Indicator B.4.6
Describe the condensation reaction necessary to make a triglyceride
Indicator B.4.7
Describe enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis of triglycerides during digestion
Indicator B.4.8
Explain the higher energy value of fats as compared to carbohydrates
Indicator B.4.9
Describe roles of lipids in the body & their negative health effects

Benchmark B.5
Micronutrients and Macronutrients
Indicator B.5.1
Outline the difference between micronutrients and macronutrients
Indicator B.5.2
Compare the structures of vitamins A, D, and C
Indicator B.5.3
Deduce whether a vitamin is water- or fat-soluble from its structure
Indicator B.5.4
Discuss causes & effects of nutrient deficiencies; suggest solutions

Benchmark B.6
Indicator B.6.1
Outline the production and function of hormones in the body
Indicator B.6.2
Compare the structures of cholesterol and the sex hormones
Indicator B.6.3
Describe the mode of action of oral contraceptives
Indicator B.6.4
Outline the use and abuse of steroids

Benchmark B.7
Enzymes (HL)
Indicator B.7.1
Describe the characteristics of biological catalysts (enzymes)
Indicator B.7.2
Compare inorganic catalysts and biological catalysts (enzymes)
Indicator B.7.3
Describe the relationship between substrate conc. and enzyme activity
Indicator B.7.4
Determine Vmax and value of Michaelis constant by graphical means
Indicator B.7.5
Describe the mechanism of enzyme action
Indicator B.7.6
Compare competitive inhibition and non-competitive inhibition
Indicator B.7.7
State effects of heavy metal ions, temp/pH changes on enzyme activity

Benchmark B.8
Nucleic Acids (HL)
Indicator B.8.1
Describe the structure of nucleotides and their condensation polymers
Indicator B.8.2
Distinguish between the structures of DNA and RNA
Indicator B.8.3
Explain the double helical structure of DNA
Indicator B.8.4
Describe genetic role of DNA; explain its role in protein synthesis
Indicator B.8.5
Outline the steps involved in DNA profiling and state its use

Benchmark B.9
Respiration (HL)
Indicator B.9.1
Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration of glucose
Indicator B.9.2
Outline role of copper ions in e- transport; iron ions in O2 transport
Standard C

Benchmark C.1
Iron, Steel and Aluminium
Indicator C.1.1
State the main sources of iron
Indicator C.1.2
Describe and explain the reactions that occur in the blast furnace
Indicator C.1.3
Describe the conversion of iron into steel using oxygen converter
Indicator C.1.4
Describe alloys as homogeneous mixture of metals or metal/non-metal
Indicator C.1.5
Explain how alloying can modify the properties of metals
Indicator C.1.6
Describe the effects of heat treatment of steel
Indicator C.1.7
Describe the properties and uses of iron and steel
Indicator C.1.8
Describe the production of aluminium by electrolysis of alumina
Indicator C.1.9
Describe main properties and uses of aluminium and its alloys
Indicator C.1.10
Discuss the environmental impact of iron and aluminium production

Benchmark C.2
The Oil Industry
Indicator C.2.1
Compare the use of oil as an energy source and as a chemical feedstock
Indicator C.2.2
Compare catalytic cracking, thermal cracking and steam cracking

Benchmark C.3
Addition Polymers
Indicator C.3.1
Describe how polymers' properties depend on their structural features
Indicator C.3.2
Describe the ways of modifying the properties of addition polymers
Indicator C.3.3
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of polymer use

Benchmark C.4
Indicator C.4.1
Compare the modes of action of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts
Indicator C.4.2
Outline advantages/disadvantages of homo/heterogeneous catalysts
Indicator C.4.3
Discuss the factors in choosing a catalyst for a process

Benchmark C.5
Fuel Cells and Rechargeable Batteries
Indicator C.5.1
Describe how a hydrogen–oxygen fuel cell works
Indicator C.5.2
Describe the workings of rechargeable batteries
Indicator C.5.3
Discuss similarities/differences: fuel cells v. rechargeable batteries

Benchmark C.6
Liquid Crystals
Indicator C.6.1
Describe the meaning of the term liquid crystals
Indicator C.6.2
Distinguish between thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals
Indicator C.6.3
Describe liquid-crystal state in terms of the arrangement of molecules
Indicator C.6.4
Outline the principles of the liquid crystal display device
Indicator C.6.5
Discuss necessary properties for substance in liquid-crystal displays

Benchmark C.7
Indicator C.7.1
Define the term nanotechnology
Indicator C.7.2
Distinguish between physical/chemical techniques in manipulating atoms
Indicator C.7.3
Describe the structure and properties of carbon nanotubes
Indicator C.7.4
Discuss some of the implications of nanotechnology

Benchmark C.8
Condensation Polymers (HL)
Indicator C.8.1
Distinguish between addition & condensation polymers: structures
Indicator C.8.2
Describe how condensation polymers are formed from their monomers
Indicator C.8.3
Describe how polymers' properties depend on their structural features
Indicator C.8.4
Describe ways of modifying the properties of polymers
Indicator C.8.5
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of polymer use

Benchmark C.9
Mechanisms in the Organic Chemicals Industry (HL)
Indicator C.9.1
Describe free-radical mechanism used to make low-density polyethene
Indicator C.9.2
Outline use of Ziegler-Natta catalysts to make high-density polyethene

Benchmark C.10
Silicon and Photovoltaic Cells (HL)
Indicator C.10.1
Describe doping of silicon to produce p-type & n-type semiconductors
Indicator C.10.2
Describe how sunlight interacts with semiconductors

Benchmark C.11
Liquid Crystals (HL)
Indicator C.11.1
Identify molecules with liquid-crystal properties; explain behaviour
Indicator C.11.2
Describe the workings of a twisted nematic liquid crystal
Indicator C.11.3
Describe liquid-crystal properties of Kevlar:strength/H2SO4 solubility

Benchmark C.12
The Chlor-Alkali Industry (HL)
Indicator C.12.1
Discuss chlorine/sodium hydroxide production by electrolysis
Indicator C.12.2
Outline some important uses of the products of this process
Indicator C.12.3
Discuss environmental impact of the processes for electrolysis of NaCl
Standard D

Benchmark D.1
Pharmaceutical Products
Indicator D.1.1
List the effects of medicines and drugs on the functioning of the body
Indicator D.1.2
Outline the stages involved in research, development, and testing
Indicator D.1.3
Describe the different methods of administering drugs
Indicator D.1.4
Discuss the terms therapeutic window, tolerance and side-effects

Benchmark D.2
Indicator D.2.1
Explain how excess stomach acidity can be reduced by the use of bases

Benchmark D.3
Indicator D.3.1
Describe and explain the different ways that analgesics prevent pain
Indicator D.3.2
Describe the use of derivatives of salicylic acid as mild analgesics
Indicator D.3.3
Compare the structures of morphine, codeine, and diamorphine
Indicator D.3.4
Discuss advantages/disadvantages of using morphine as an analgesic

Benchmark D.4
Indicator D.4.1
Describe the effects of depressants
Indicator D.4.2
Discuss the social & physiological effects of the use/abuse of ethanol
Indicator D.4.3
Describe the techniques used for ethanol detection
Indicator D.4.4
Describe the synergistic effects of ethanol with other drugs
Indicator D.4.5
Identify commonly used depressants and describe their structures

Benchmark D.5
Indicator D.5.1
List the physiological effects of stimulants
Indicator D.5.2
Compare amphetamines and epinephrine (adrenaline)
Indicator D.5.3
Discuss the short- and long-term effects of nicotine consumption
Indicator D.5.4
Describe the effects of caffeine and compare its structure to nicotine

Benchmark D.6
Indicator D.6.1
Outline the historical development of penicillins
Indicator D.6.2
Explain how penicillins work & discuss side-chain modification effects
Indicator D.6.3
Discuss importance of patient compliance; effect of overprescription

Benchmark D.7
Indicator D.7.1
State how viruses differ from bacteria
Indicator D.7.2
Describe the different ways in which antiviral drugs work
Indicator D.7.3
Discuss the difficulties associated with solving the AIDS problem

Benchmark D.8
Drug Action (HL)
Indicator D.8.1
Describe the importance of geometrical isomerism in drug action
Indicator D.8.2
Discuss the importance of chirality in drug action
Indicator D.8.3
Explain the importance of the betalactam ring action of penicillin
Indicator D.8.4
Explain the increased potency of diamorphine compared to morphine

Benchmark D.9
Drug Design (HL)
Indicator D.9.1
Discuss the use of a compound library in drug design
Indicator D.9.2
Explain use of combinatorial/parallel chemistry to synthesize drugs
Indicator D.9.3
Describe how computers are used in drug design
Indicator D.9.4
Discuss how the polarity of a molecule can be modified
Indicator D.9.5
Describe the use of chiral auxiliaries to form the desired enantiomer

Benchmark D.10
Mind-Altering Drugs (HL)
Indicator D.10.1
Describe the effects of LSD, mescaline, psilocybin and THC
Indicator D.10.2
Discuss structural similarities & differences between LSD, mescaline
Indicator D.10.3
Discuss arguments for and against the legalization of cannabis
Standard E

Benchmark E.1
Air Pollution
Indicator E.1.1
Describe sources of CO, NOx, SOx, particulates, VOCs in the atmosphere
Indicator E.1.2
Evaluate current methods for the reduction of air pollution

Benchmark E.2
Acid Deposition
Indicator E.2.1
State what is meant by "acid deposition" & outline its origins
Indicator E.2.2
Discuss the environmental effects of acid deposition

Benchmark E.3
Greenhouse Effect
Indicator E.3.1
Describe the greenhouse effect
Indicator E.3.2
List the greenhouse gases, their sources; discuss relative effects
Indicator E.3.3
Discuss the influence of increasing amounts of greenhouse gases

Benchmark E.4
Ozone Depletion
Indicator E.4.1
Describe the formation & depletion of ozone in the stratosphere
Indicator E.4.2
List the ozone-depleting pollutants and their sources
Indicator E.4.3
Discuss the alternatives to CFCs in terms of their properties

Benchmark E.5
Dissolved Oxygen in Water
Indicator E.5.1
Outline BOD as a measure of O2-demanding wastes in water
Indicator E.5.2
Distinguish between aerobic & anaerobic decomposition in water
Indicator E.5.3
Describe the process of eutrophication and its effects
Indicator E.5.4
Describe the source and effects of thermal pollution in water

Benchmark E.6
Water Treatment
Indicator E.6.1
List primary pollutants found in waste water; identify their sources
Indicator E.6.2
Outline stages of waste water treatment including substances removed
Indicator E.6.3
Evaluate the process to obtain fresh water from sea water

Benchmark E.7
Indicator E.7.1
Discuss the causes of soil degradation
Indicator E.7.2
Describe the relevance of the SOM in preventing soil degradation
Indicator E.7.3
List common organic soil pollutants and their sources

Benchmark E.8
Indicator E.8.1
Outline and compare various methods for waste disposal
Indicator E.8.2
Describe recycling of metal, glass, plastic & paper; outline benefits
Indicator E.8.3
Describe the characteristics of different types of radioactive waste
Indicator E.8.4
Compare storage & disposal methods for different radioactive wastes

Benchmark E.9
Ozone Depletion (HL)
Indicator E.9.1
Explain dependence of O2 & O3 dissociation on the wavelength of light
Indicator E.9.2
Describe the mechanism in the catalysis of O3 depletion by CFCs & NOx
Indicator E.9.3
Outline the reasons for greater ozone depletion in polar regions

Benchmark E.10
Smog (HL)
Indicator E.10.1
State source of primary pollutants & conditions needed to form smog
Indicator E.10.2
Outline the formation of secondary pollutants in photochemical smog

Benchmark E.11
Acid Deposition (HL)
Indicator E.11.1
Describe the mechanism of acid deposition caused by oxides
Indicator E.11.2
Explain the role of ammonia in acid deposition

Benchmark E.12
Water and Soil (HL)
Indicator E.12.1
Solve problems relating to water treatment by chemical precipitation
Indicator E.12.2
State what "cation-exchange capacity" means & outline its importance
Indicator E.12.3
Discuss the effects of soil pH on CEC and availability of nutrients
Indicator E.12.4
Describe the chemical functions of soil organic matter (SOM)
Standard F

Benchmark F.1
Food Groups
Indicator F.1.1
Distinguish between a food and a nutrient
Indicator F.1.2
Describe the chemical composition of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins

Benchmark F.2
Fats and Oils
Indicator F.2.1
Describe difference in saturated/unsaturated fatty acid structures
Indicator F.2.2
Predict the degree of crystallization & melting pt. of fats & oils
Indicator F.2.3
Deduce the stability of fats and oils from their structure
Indicator F.2.4
Describe the process of hydrogenation and unsaturated fats
Indicator F.2.5
Discuss advantages & disadvantages of hydrogenating fats and oils

Benchmark F.3
Shelf Life
Indicator F.3.1
Explain the meaning of the term shelf life
Indicator F.3.2
Discuss the factors that affect the shelf life and quality of food
Indicator F.3.3
Describe the rancidity of fats
Indicator F.3.4
Compare the processes of hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity in lipids
Indicator F.3.5
Describe ways to minimize the rate of rancidity & prolong shelf life
Indicator F.3.6
Describe methods used by different cultures to extend food shelf life
Indicator F.3.7
Define the term antioxidant
Indicator F.3.8
List common naturally occurring antioxidants and their sources
Indicator F.3.9
Compare structural features of major synthetic antioxidants in food
Indicator F.3.10
Discuss advantages/disadvantages of natural/synthetic antioxidants
Indicator F.3.11
List some antioxidants found in the foods of different cultures

Benchmark F.4
Indicator F.4.1
Distinguish between a dye and a pigment
Indicator F.4.2
Explain occurrence of colour in naturally occurring pigments
Indicator F.4.3
Describe colour range & sources of naturally occurring pigments
Indicator F.4.4
Describe the factors that affect the colour stability of pigments
Indicator F.4.5
Discuss safety issues associated with the use of synthetic colorants
Indicator F.4.6
Compare the processes of non-enzymatic browning and carmelization

Benchmark F.5
Genetically Modified Foods
Indicator F.5.1
Define a genetically modified (GM) food
Indicator F.5.2
Discuss benefits and concerns of using GM food

Benchmark F.6
Indicator F.6.1
Describe a dispersed system in food
Indicator F.6.2
Distinguish between suspensions, emulsions and foams in food
Indicator F.6.3
Describe the action of emulsifiers

Benchmark F.7
Oxidative Rancidity (Auto-Oxidation)
Indicator F.7.1
Describe steps in the free-radical chain mechanism during rancidity

Benchmark F.8
Indicator F.8.1
Explain the differences between the three main types of antioxidants

Benchmark F.9
Stereochemistry in Food
Indicator F.9.1
Explain the three different naming conventions for enantiomeric forms
Indicator F.9.2
Distinguish between the properties of the different enantiomeric forms

Benchmark F.10
Chemical Structure and Colour
Indicator F.10.1
Compare structural similarities & differences of the natural pigments
Indicator F.10.2
Explain why the natural pigments form coloured compounds
Indicator F.10.3
Deduce whether anthocyanins & carotenoids are H2O- or fat-soluble
Standard G

Benchmark G.1
Electrophilic Addition Reactions
Indicator G.1.1
Describe the electrophilic addition mechanisms of alkene-halogen rxns
Indicator G.1.2
Predict the formation of the major product in terms of stabilities

Benchmark G.2
Nucleophilic Addition Reactions
Indicator G.2.1
Describe the addition of hydrogen cyanide to aldehydes and ketones
Indicator G.2.2
Describe mechanism for addn of hydrogen cyanide to aldehydes/ketones
Indicator G.2.3
Describe the hydrolysis of cyanohydrins to form carboxylic acids

Benchmark G.3
Elimination Reactions
Indicator G.3.1
Describe the dehydration rxns of alcohols w/H3PO4 to form alkenes
Indicator G.3.2
Describe the mechanism for the elimination of water from alcohols

Benchmark G.4
Addition-Elimination Reactions
Indicator G.4.1
Describe the rxns of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with aldehydes/ketones

Benchmark G.5
Indicator G.5.1
Describe and explain the structure of benzene using evidence
Indicator G.5.2
Describe the relative rates of hydrolysis of benzene compounds

Benchmark G.6
Organometallic Chemistry
Indicator G.6.1
Outline the formation of Grignard reagents
Indicator G.6.2
Describe rxns of Grignard reagents with water, CO2, aldehydes, ketones

Benchmark G.7
Reaction Pathways
Indicator G.7.1
Deduce reaction pathways given the starting materials and product

Benchmark G.8
Acid-Base Reactions
Indicator G.8.1
Describe the acidic properties of phenol, substituted phenol: bonding
Indicator G.8.2
Describe acidic properties of substituted carboxylic acids: bonding
Indicator G.8.3
Compare and explain the relative basicities of ammonia and amines

Benchmark G.9
Addition-Elimination Reactions
Indicator G.9.1
Describe the reactions of acid anhydrides with nucleophiles
Indicator G.9.2
Describe the reactions of acyl chlorides with nucleophiles
Indicator G.9.3
Explain rxns of acyl chlorides with nucleophiles: addition-elimination

Benchmark G.10
Electrophilic Substitution Reactions
Indicator G.10.1
Describe the nitration, chlorination, alkylation, acylation of benzene
Indicator G.10.2
Describe mechanisms for the nitration, chlorination, etc. of benzene
Indicator G.10.3
Describe mechanisms for nitration, chlorination, etc. of methylbenzene
Indicator G.10.4
Describe directing effects, relative rxn rates of diff. substituents

Benchmark G.11
Reaction Pathways
Indicator G.11.1
Deduce reaction pathways given the starting materials and the product

Essential - Standard, benchmark, or indicator from the VDOE Standards of Learning document. In the absence of VDOE standards for a given course, content subject to testing such as AP and IB can be labeled Essential.
Expected - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies to provide a context, a bridge, or an enhancement to the Essential SBIs.
Extended - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies generally used to differentiate instruction for advanced learners (Honors/GT)