Science Curriculum
  IB Chemistry
 

The Diploma Programme chemistry course includes the essential principles of the subject but also, through selection of options, allows teachers some flexibility to tailor the course to meet the needs of their students. The course is available at both standard level (SL) and higher level (HL), and therefore accommodates students who wish to study science in higher education and those who do not.

Last Updated: 06/18/09 01:28 PM
 
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 1
  QUANTITATIVE CHEMISTRY
 

Benchmark 1.1
The Mole Concept and Avogadro's Constant
 
Indicator 1.1.1
Apply the mole concept to substances
 
Indicator 1.1.2
Determine the number of particles and the amount of substance (moles)
 

Benchmark 1.2
Formulas
 
Indicator 1.2.1
Define the terms relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass
 
Indicator 1.2.2
Calculate the mass of one mole of a species from its formula
 
Indicator 1.2.3
Solve problems involving moles, mass and molar mass relationships
 
Indicator 1.2.4
Distinguish between the terms empirical formula and molecular formula
 
Indicator 1.2.5
Determine the empirical formula from the percentage composition
 
Indicator 1.2.6
Determine the molecular formula using the empirical formula and data
 

Benchmark 1.3
Chemical Equations
 
Indicator 1.3.1
Deduce chemical equations when all reactants and products are given
 
Indicator 1.3.2
Identify the mole ratio of any two species in a chemical equation
 
Indicator 1.3.3
Apply the state symbols (s), (l), (g) and (aq)
 

Benchmark 1.4
Mass and Gaseous Volume Relationships in Chemical Reactions
 
Indicator 1.4.1
Calculate theoretical yields from chemical equations
 
Indicator 1.4.2
Determine the limiting reactant and the reactant in excess
 
Indicator 1.4.3
Solve problems involving theoretical, experimental & percentage yield
 
Indicator 1.4.4
Apply Avogadro’s law to calculate reacting volumes of gases
 
Indicator 1.4.5
Apply the concept of molar volume at standard temperature and pressure
 
Indicator 1.4.6
Solve problems involving the relationship between temp/pressure/volume
 
Indicator 1.4.7
Solve problems using the ideal gas equation
 
Indicator 1.4.8
Analyse graphs relating to the ideal gas equation
 

Benchmark 1.5
Solutions
 
Indicator 1.5.1
Distinguish between the terms solute, solvent, solution, concentration
 
Indicator 1.5.2
Solve problems involving concentration, amount of solute and volume
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 2
  ATOMIC STRUCTURE
 

Benchmark 2.1
The Atom
 
Indicator 2.1.1
State the position of protons, neutrons and electrons in the atom
 
Indicator 2.1.2
State the relative masses & charges of protons, neutrons, electrons
 
Indicator 2.1.3
Define the terms mass number, atomic number and isotopes of an element
 
Indicator 2.1.4
Deduce the symbol for an isotope given its mass # and atomic #
 
Indicator 2.1.5
Calculate the number of protons, neutrons & electrons in atoms & ions
 
Indicator 2.1.6
Compare the properties of the isotopes of an element
 
Indicator 2.1.7
Discuss the uses of radioisotopes
 

Benchmark 2.2
The Mass Spectrometer
 
Indicator 2.2.1
Describe and explain the operation of a mass spectrometer
 
Indicator 2.2.2
Describe how the mass spectrometer is used to determine atomic mass
 
Indicator 2.2.3
Calculate non-integer relative atomic masses and abundance of isotopes
 

Benchmark 2.3
Electron Arrangement
 
Indicator 2.3.1
Describe the electromagnetic spectrum
 
Indicator 2.3.2
Distinguish between a continuous spectrum and a line spectrum
 
Indicator 2.3.3
Explain how the lines in the emission spectrum relate to energy levels
 
Indicator 2.3.4
Deduce the electron arrangement for atoms and ions up to Z = 20
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 3
  PERIODICITY
 

Benchmark 3.1
The Periodic Table
 
Indicator 3.1.1
Describe the arrangement of elements in the periodic table: atomic #
 
Indicator 3.1.2
Distinguish between the terms group and period
 
Indicator 3.1.3
Relate an element's electron arrangements to periodic table position
 
Indicator 3.1.4
Relate the number of electrons in the highest level to periodic table
 

Benchmark 3.2
Physical Properties
 
Indicator 3.2.1
Define the terms first ionization energy and electronegativity
 
Indicator 3.2.2
Describe and explain the trends for the alkali metals and the halogens
 
Indicator 3.2.3
Describe and explain the trends in for elements across period 3
 
Indicator 3.2.4
Compare the relative electronegativity values of two or more elements
 

Benchmark 3.3
Chemical Properties
 
Indicator 3.3.1
Compare/contrast the chemical properties of elements in the same group
 
Indicator 3.3.2
Discuss the changes in nature of the oxides across period 3
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 4
  BONDING
 

Benchmark 4.1
Ionic Bonding
 
Indicator 4.1.1
Describe the ionic bond as the electrostatic attraction between ions
 
Indicator 4.1.2
Describe how ions can be formed as a result of electron transfer
 
Indicator 4.1.3
Deduce which ions will be formed by elements in groups 1, 2 and 3
 
Indicator 4.1.4
Deduce which ions will be formed by elements in groups 5, 6, and 7
 
Indicator 4.1.5
State that transition elements can form more than one ion
 
Indicator 4.1.6
Predict whether a compound of two elements would be ionic
 
Indicator 4.1.7
State the formula of common polyatomic ions formed by nonmetals
 
Indicator 4.1.8
Describe the lattice structure of ionic compounds
 

Benchmark 4.2
Covalent Bonding
 
Indicator 4.2.1
Describe the covalent bond
 
Indicator 4.2.2
Describe how the covalent bond is formed
 
Indicator 4.2.3
Deduce the Lewis (electron dot) structures of molecules and ions
 
Indicator 4.2.4
State the relationship between the number of bonds, bond length, etc.
 
Indicator 4.2.5
Predict whether a compound of two elements would be covalent
 
Indicator 4.2.6
Predict the relative polarity of bonds from electronegativity values
 
Indicator 4.2.7
Predict the shape and bond angles for species using VSEPR theory
 
Indicator 4.2.8
Predict whether or not a molecule is polar
 
Indicator 4.2.9
Describe/compare the structure & bonding in the 3 allotropes of carbon
 
Indicator 4.2.10
Describe the structure of and bonding in silicon and silicon dioxide
 

Benchmark 4.3
Intermolecular Forces
 
Indicator 4.3.1
Describe the types of intermolecular forces and explain how they arise
 
Indicator 4.3.2
Describe & explain how intermolecular forces affect boiling points
 

Benchmark 4.4
Metallic Bonding
 
Indicator 4.4.1
Describe a metallic bond
 
Indicator 4.4.2
Explain the electrical conductivity and malleability of metals
 

Benchmark 4.5
Physical Properties
 
Indicator 4.5.1
Compare the properties of substances resulting from different bonding
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 5
  ENERGETICS
 

Benchmark 5.1
Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
 
Indicator 5.1.1
Define exothermic rxn, endothermic rxn, standard enthalpy change
 
Indicator 5.1.2
State that combustion and neutralization are exothermic processes
 
Indicator 5.1.3
Relate temperature change, enthalpy change & endo- or exothermic
 
Indicator 5.1.4
Deduce the relative stabilities of reactants and products
 

Benchmark 5.2
Calculation of Enthalpy Changes
 
Indicator 5.2.1
Calculate the heat energy change of a pure substance temp. change
 
Indicator 5.2.2
Design experimental procedures for measuring heat energy changes
 
Indicator 5.2.3
Calculate the enthalpy change for a reaction using experimental data
 
Indicator 5.2.4
Evaluate the results of experiments to determine enthalpy changes
 

Benchmark 5.3
Hess-s Law
 
Indicator 5.3.1
Determine the enthalpy change of a rxn that is the sum of 2 or 3 rxns
 

Benchmark 5.4
Bond Enthalpies
 
Indicator 5.4.1
Define the term average bond enthalpy.
 
Indicator 5.4.2
Explain why some reactions are exothermic and others are endothermic
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 6
  KINETICS
 

Benchmark 6.1
Rates of Reaction
 
Indicator 6.1.1
Define the term rate of reaction
 
Indicator 6.1.2
Describe suitable experimental procedures for measuring rates of rxns
 
Indicator 6.1.3
Analyse data from rate experiments
 

Benchmark 6.2
Collision Theory
 
Indicator 6.2.1
Describe the kinetic theory
 
Indicator 6.2.2
Define the term activation energy
 
Indicator 6.2.3
Describe the collision theory
 
Indicator 6.2.4
Use the collision theory to predict and explain effects on a rxn rate
 
Indicator 6.2.5
Sketch and explain the Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution curve
 
Indicator 6.2.6
Describe the effect of a catalyst on a chemical reaction
 
Indicator 6.2.7
Sketch & explain Maxwell-Boltzmann curves for rxns w/ & w/o catalysts
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 7
  EQUILIBRIUM
 

Benchmark 7.1
Dynamic Equilibrium
 
Indicator 7.1.1
Outline characteristics of chemical & physical systems in equilibrium
 

Benchmark 7.2
The Position of Equilibrium
 
Indicator 7.2.1
Deduce the equilibrium constant expression from a homogeneous rxn eqn
 
Indicator 7.2.2
Deduce extent of a rxn from the magnitude of the equilibrium constant
 
Indicator 7.2.3
Apply Le Chatelier's principle to predict the effects of changes
 
Indicator 7.2.4
State and explain the effect of a catalyst on an equilibrium reaction
 
Indicator 7.2.5
Apply the concepts of kinetics and equilibrium to industrial processes
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 8
  ACIDS AND BASES
 

Benchmark 8.1
Theories of Acids and Bases
 
Indicator 8.1.1
Define acids & bases according to the Brønsted-Lowry & Lewis theories
 
Indicator 8.1.2
Deduce whether or not a species could act as an acid or base
 
Indicator 8.1.3
Deduce the formula of the conjugate acid (or base)
 

Benchmark 8.2
Properties of Acids and Bases
 
Indicator 8.2.1
Outline the characteristic properties of acids & bases in aqueous soln
 

Benchmark 8.3
Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
 
Indicator 8.3.1
Distinguish between strong and weak acids and bases
 
Indicator 8.3.2
State whether a given acid or base is strong or weak
 
Indicator 8.3.3
Distinguish between strong/weak acids and bases: experimental data
 

Benchmark 8.4
The pH Scale
 
Indicator 8.4.1
Distinguish between aqueous solns that are acidic, neutral or alkaline
 
Indicator 8.4.2
Identify which of two or more aqueous solns is more acidic or alkaline
 
Indicator 8.4.3
State that each change of 1 pH unit represents a 10-fold change in H+
 
Indicator 8.4.4
Deduce changes in [H+(aq)] when the pH of a solution changes
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 9
  OXIDATION AND REDUCTION
 

Benchmark 9.1
Introduction to Oxidation and Reduction
 
Indicator 9.1.1
Define oxidation and reduction in terms of electron loss and gain
 
Indicator 9.1.2
Deduce the oxidation number of an element in a compound
 
Indicator 9.1.3
State the names of compounds using oxidation numbers
 
Indicator 9.1.4
Deduce if an element undergoes oxidation/reduction using oxidation #s
 

Benchmark 9.2
Redox Equations
 
Indicator 9.2.1
Deduce simple oxidation and reduction half-equations from the species
 
Indicator 9.2.2
Deduce redox equations using half equations
 
Indicator 9.2.3
Define the terms oxidizing agent and reducing agent
 
Indicator 9.2.4
Identify the oxidizing and reducing agents in redox equations
 

Benchmark 9.3
Reactivity
 
Indicator 9.3.1
Deduce a reactivity series based on the chemical behaviour of agents
 
Indicator 9.3.2
Deduce the feasibility of a redox reaction from a reactivity series
 

Benchmark 9.4
Voltaic Cells
 
Indicator 9.4.1
Explain how a redox reaction produces electricity in a voltaic cell
 
Indicator 9.4.2
State that oxidation occurs at anode; reduction occurs at cathode
 

Benchmark 9.5
Electrolytic cells
 
Indicator 9.5.1
Describe, using a diagram, the components of an electrolytic cell
 
Indicator 9.5.2
State that oxidation occurs at anode and reduction occurs at cathode
 
Indicator 9.5.3
Describe how current is conducted in an electrolytic cell
 
Indicator 9.5.4
Deduce the products of the electrolysis of a molten salt
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 10
  ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
 

Benchmark 10.1
Introduction
 
Indicator 10.1.1
Describe the features of a homologous series
 
Indicator 10.1.2
Explain the trends in boiling points of members of a homologous series
 
Indicator 10.1.3
Distinguish between empirical, molecular and structural formulas
 
Indicator 10.1.4
Describe structural isomers
 
Indicator 10.1.5
Deduce structural formulas for the isomers of the non-cyclic alkanes
 
Indicator 10.1.6
Apply IUPAC rules for naming the isomers of the non-cyclic alkanes
 
Indicator 10.1.7
Deduce structural formulas for the isomers of straight-chain alkenes
 
Indicator 10.1.8
Apply IUPAC rules for naming the isomers of the straight-chain alkenes
 
Indicator 10.1.9
Deduce structural formulas for compounds up to 6 C & functional group
 
Indicator 10.1.10
Apply IUPAC rules for naming compounds up to 6 C & functional groups
 
Indicator 10.1.11
Identify functional groups when present in structural formulas
 
Indicator 10.1.12
Identify primary, secondary and tertiary carbon atoms in alcohols
 
Indicator 10.1.13
Discuss volatility & solubility in H2O of compounds w/ functional grps
 

Benchmark 10.2
Alkanes
 
Indicator 10.2.1
Explain low reactivity of alkanes in terms of bond enthalpies/polarity
 
Indicator 10.2.2
Describe, using eqns, complete and incomplete combustion of alkanes
 
Indicator 10.2.3
Describe, using equations: rxns of methane and ethane with Cl and Br
 
Indicator 10.2.4
Explain rxns of methane & ethane w/ Cl & Br in terms of free-radicals
 

Benchmark 10.3
Alkenes
 
Indicator 10.3.1
Describe, using equations, the rxns of alkenes with H and halogens
 
Indicator 10.3.2
Describe, using equations, the reactions of symmetrical alkenes
 
Indicator 10.3.3
Distinguish between alkanes and alkenes using bromine water
 
Indicator 10.3.4
Outline the polymerization of alkenes
 
Indicator 10.3.5
Outline the economic importance of the reactions of alkenes
 

Benchmark 10.4
Alcohols
 
Indicator 10.4.1
Describe, using equations, the complete combustion of alcohols
 
Indicator 10.4.2
Describe, using equations, the oxidation reactions of alcohols
 
Indicator 10.4.3
Determine products formed by the oxidation of primary & sec. alcohols
 

Benchmark 10.5
Halogenoalkanes
 
Indicator 10.5.1
Describe, using eqns, the substitution rxns of halogenoalkanes w/ NaOH
 
Indicator 10.5.2
Explain substitution rxns of halogenoalkanes w/ NaOH in SN1, SN2 terms
 

Benchmark 10.6
Reaction Pathways
 
Indicator 10.6.1
Deduce reaction pathways given the starting materials and the product
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 11
  MEASUREMENT AND DATA PROCESSING
 

Benchmark 11.1
Uncertainty and Error in Measurement
 
Indicator 11.1.1
Describe & give examples of random uncertainties and systematic errors
 
Indicator 11.1.2
Distinguish between precision and accuracy
 
Indicator 11.1.3
Describe how the effects of random uncertainties may be reduced
 
Indicator 11.1.4
State random uncertainty as an uncertainty range
 
Indicator 11.1.5
State results of calculations to appropriate # of significant figures
 

Benchmark 11.2
Uncertainties in Calculated Results
 
Indicator 11.2.1
State uncertainties as absolute and percentage uncertainties
 
Indicator 11.2.2
Determine the uncertainties in results
 

Benchmark 11.3
Graphical Techniques
 
Indicator 11.3.1
Sketch graphs to represent dependences and interpret graph behaviour
 
Indicator 11.3.2
Construct graphs from experimental data
 
Indicator 11.3.3
Draw best-fit lines through data points on a graph
 
Indicator 11.3.4
Determine the values of physical quantities from graphs
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 12
  ATOMIC STRUCTURE
 

Benchmark 12.1
Electron Configuration
 
Indicator 12.1.1
Explain how 1st ionization energy evidence = energy levels in atoms
 
Indicator 12.1.2
Explain relationship of ionization energy to electron configuration
 
Indicator 12.1.3
State relative energies of s, p, d, f orbitals in single energy level
 
Indicator 12.1.4
State the maximum number of orbitals in a given energy level
 
Indicator 12.1.5
Draw the shape of an s orbital and the p orbitals
 
Indicator 12.1.6
Apply Aufbau principle, Hund's rule and Pauli exclusion principle
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 13
  PERIODICITY
 

Benchmark 13.1
Trends Across Period 3
 
Indicator 13.1.1
Explain physical states/electrical conductivity of chlorides & oxides
 
Indicator 13.1.2
Describe rxns of chlorine and the chlorides in 13.1.1 with water
 

Benchmark 13.2
First-row d-block Elements
 
Indicator 13.2.1
List the characteristic properties of transition elements
 
Indicator 13.2.2
Explain why Sc and Zn are not considered to be transition elements
 
Indicator 13.2.3
Explain variable oxidation number in transition elements' ions
 
Indicator 13.2.4
Define the term ligand
 
Indicator 13.2.5
Describe & explain the formation of complexes of d-block elements
 
Indicator 13.2.6
Explain why some complexes of d-block elements are coloured
 
Indicator 13.2.7
State examples of catalytic action of transition elements/compounds
 
Indicator 13.2.8
Outline economic significance of catalysts in Contact/Haber processes
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 14
  BONDING
 

Benchmark 14.1
Shapes of Molecules and Ions
 
Indicator 14.1.1
Predict shape & bond angles for species w/ 5 & 6 neg. charge centers
 

Benchmark 14.2
Hybridization
 
Indicator 14.2.1
Describe s and p bonds
 
Indicator 14.2.2
Explain hybridization in terms of the mixing of atomic orbitals
 
Indicator 14.2.3
Relate Lewis structures, molecular shapes, types of hybridization
 

Benchmark 14.3
Delocalization of Electrons
 
Indicator 14.3.1
Describe the delocalization of p electrons & its effect on structures
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 15
  ENERGETICS
 

Benchmark 15.1
Standard Enthalpy Changes of Reaction
 
Indicator 15.1.1
Define and apply standard state and standard enthalpy change terms
 
Indicator 15.1.2
Determine the enthalpy change of a rxn using standard enthalpy changes
 

Benchmark 15.2
Born-Haber Cycle
 
Indicator 15.2.1
Define and apply the terms lattice enthalpy and electron affinity
 
Indicator 15.2.2
Explain how relative sizes & charges of ions affect lattice enthalpies
 
Indicator 15.2.3
Construct & use Born-Haber cycle for groups 1 & 2 oxides and chlorides
 
Indicator 15.2.4
Discuss theoretical vs. experimental lattice enthalpy values
 

Benchmark 15.3
Entropy
 
Indicator 15.3.1
State and explain the factors that increase entropy in a system
 
Indicator 15.3.2
Predict whether the entropy change for a rxn is positive or negative
 
Indicator 15.3.3
Calculate the standard entropy change for a rxn using standard values
 

Benchmark 15.4
Spontaneity
 
Indicator 15.4.1
Predict whether a rxn will be spontaneous using ­the sign of delta G
 
Indicator 15.4.2
Calculate delta G for a reaction
 
Indicator 15.4.3
Predict the effect of a change in temp. on the spontaneity of a rxn
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 16
  KINETICS
 

Benchmark 16.1
Rate Expression
 
Indicator 16.1.1
Distinguish between rate constant, overall order of rxn, order of rxn
 
Indicator 16.1.2
Deduce the rate expression for reaction from experimental data
 
Indicator 16.1.3
Solve problems involving the rate expression
 
Indicator 16.1.4
Sketch, identify, analyse graphical representations for 0,1st,2nd rxns
 

Benchmark 16.2
Reaction Mechanism
 
Indicator 16.2.1
Explain rxns can occur by >1 step; slowest step is rate-determining
 
Indicator 16.2.2
Relate rxn mechanism, order of rxn, and rate-determining step
 

Benchmark 16.3
Activation Energy
 
Indicator 16.3.1
Describe qualitatively the relationship between k and T
 
Indicator 16.3.2
Determine activation energy values by a graphical method
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 17
  EQUILIBRIUM
 

Benchmark 17.1
Liquid-Vapour Equilibrium
 
Indicator 17.1.1
Describe the equilibrium between liquid, its vapour and temp. changes
 
Indicator 17.1.2
Sketch graphs showing the relationship between vapour pressure & temp
 
Indicator 17.1.3
Explain relationships: enthalpy of vaporization, boiling point, etc.
 

Benchmark 17.2
The Equilibrium Law
 
Indicator 17.2.1
Solve homogeneous equilibrium problems using the expression for Kc
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 18
  ACIDS AND BASES
 

Benchmark 18.1
Calculations Involving Acids and Bases
 
Indicator 18.1.1
State the expression for the ionic product constant of water
 
Indicator 18.1.2
Deduce the concentration of H+ and OH- for water at different temps
 
Indicator 18.1.3
Solve problems involving the concentration of H+ and OH-, pH, pOH
 
Indicator 18.1.4
State the eqn for the rxn of any weak acid or weak base w/ water
 
Indicator 18.1.5
Solve problems involving solutions of weak acids and bases
 
Indicator 18.1.6
Identify strengths of acids and bases using values of Ka,Kb,pKa, pKb
 

Benchmark 18.2
Buffer Solutions
 
Indicator 18.2.1
Describe the composition of a buffer solution and explain its action
 
Indicator 18.2.2
Solve problems involving composition and pH of specified buffer system
 

Benchmark 18.3
Salt Hydrolysis
 
Indicator 18.3.1
Deduce whether salts form acidic, alkaline or neutral aqueous solns
 

Benchmark 18.4
Acid-Base Titrations
 
Indicator 18.4.1
Sketch the general shapes of graphs of pH vs. volume for titrations
 

Benchmark 18.5
Indicators
 
Indicator 18.5.1
Describe qualitatively the action of an acid–base indicator
 
Indicator 18.5.2
Explain how the pH range of an acid-base indicator relates to its pKa
 
Indicator 18.5.3
Identify an appropriate indicator for a titration
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 19
  OXIDATION AND REDUCTION
 

Benchmark 19.1
Standard Electrode Potentials
 
Indicator 19.1.1
Describe the standard hydrogen electrode
 
Indicator 19.1.2
Define the term standard electrode potential
 
Indicator 19.1.3
Calculate cell potentials using standard electrode potentials
 
Indicator 19.1.4
Predict whether a reaction will be spontaneous
 

Benchmark 19.2
Electrolysis
 
Indicator 19.2.1
Predict and explain the products of electrolysis of aqueous solutions
 
Indicator 19.2.2
Determine the relative amounts of products formed during electrolysis
 
Indicator 19.2.3
Describe the use of electrolysis in electroplating
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard 20
  ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
 

Benchmark 20.1
Introduction
 
Indicator 20.1.1
Deduce structural formulas for compounds containing up to 6 carbons
 
Indicator 20.1.2
Apply IUPAC rules for naming compounds containing up to 6 carbons
 

Benchmark 20.2
Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
 
Indicator 20.2.1
Explain why the hydroxide ion is a better nucleophile than water
 
Indicator 20.2.2
Explain how the halogen ID affects the nucleophilic substitution rate
 
Indicator 20.2.3
Explain how the type of halogenalkane affects nucleophilic sub. rate
 
Indicator 20.2.4
Describe the substitution reactions of halogenoalkanes
 
Indicator 20.2.5
Explain the reactions of primary halogenoalkanes with ammonia, etc.
 
Indicator 20.2.6
Describe the reduction of nitriles using H and a nickel catalyst
 

Benchmark 20.3
Elimination Reactions
 
Indicator 20.3.1
Describe, using equations, the elimination of HBr from bromoalkanes
 
Indicator 20.3.2
Describe the mechanism for the elimination of HBr from bromoalkanes
 

Benchmark 20.4
Condensation Reactions
 
Indicator 20.4.1
Describe rxns of alcohols with carboxylic acids; state uses of esters
 
Indicator 20.4.2
Describe, using equations, the rxns of amines with carboxylic acids
 
Indicator 20.4.3
Deduce the structures of polymers formed in the reactions of alcohols
 
Indicator 20.4.4
Deduce the structures of polymers formed in the reactions of amines
 
Indicator 20.4.5
Outline the economic importance of condensation reactions
 

Benchmark 20.5
Reaction Pathways
 
Indicator 20.5.1
Deduce reaction pathways given the starting materials and product
 

Benchmark 20.6
Stereoisomerism
 
Indicator 20.6.1
Describe stereoisomers
 
Indicator 20.6.2
Describe and explain geometrical isomerism in non-cyclic alkenes
 
Indicator 20.6.3
Describe and explain geometrical isomerism in C3 and C4 cycloalkanes
 
Indicator 20.6.4
Explain the difference in phys. & chem. props of geometrical isomers
 
Indicator 20.6.5
Describe and explain optical isomerism in simple organic molecules
 
Indicator 20.6.6
Outline use of a polarimeter in distinguishing between optical isomers
 
Indicator 20.6.7
Compare the physical and chemical properties of enantiomers
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard A
  MODERN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
 

Benchmark A.1
Analytical Techniques
 
Indicator A.1.1
State the reasons for using analytical techniques
 
Indicator A.1.2
State that a compound's structure can be determined by many techniques
 

Benchmark A.2
Principles of Spectroscopy
 
Indicator A.2.1
Describe the electromagnetic spectrum
 
Indicator A.2.2
Distinguish between absorption and emission spectra
 
Indicator A.2.3
Describe the atomic & molecular processes in which energy is absorbed
 

Benchmark A.3
Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy
 
Indicator A.3.1
Describe the operating principles of a double-beam IR spectrometer
 
Indicator A.3.2
Describe how information from an IR spectrum is used to identify bonds
 
Indicator A.3.3
Explain what occurs at molecular level during IR radiation absorption
 
Indicator A.3.4
Analyse IR spectra of organic compounds
 

Benchmark A.4
Mass Spectrometry
 
Indicator A.4.1
Determine the molecular mass of compound from the molecular ion peak
 
Indicator A.4.2
Analyse fragmentation patterns in a mass spectrum to find structure
 

Benchmark A.5
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
 
Indicator A.5.1
Deduce the structure of a compound given 1H NMR spectrum information
 
Indicator A.5.2
Outline how NMR is used in body scanners
 

Benchmark A.6
Atomic Absorption (AA) Spectroscopy
 
Indicator A.6.1
State the uses of AA spectroscopy
 
Indicator A.6.2
Describe the principles of atomic absorption
 
Indicator A.6.3
Describe the use of the components of the AA spectrophotometer
 
Indicator A.6.4
Determine the concentration of a solution from a calibration curve
 

Benchmark A.7
Chromatography
 
Indicator A.7.1
State the reasons for using chromatography
 
Indicator A.7.2
Explain that chromatographic techniques use adsorption & partition
 
Indicator A.7.3
Outline the use of paper, thin-layer, and column chromatography
 

Benchmark A.8
Visible and Ultraviolet (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy (HL)
 
Indicator A.8.1
Describe effect of different ligands on the splitting of d orbitals
 
Indicator A.8.2
Describe factors that affect the colour of transition metal complexes
 
Indicator A.8.3
State that organic molecules w/ a double bond absorb UV radiation
 
Indicator A.8.4
Describe effect of the conjugation of double bonds on absorbed light
 
Indicator A.8.5
Predict if a particular molecule will absorb UV or visible radiation
 
Indicator A.8.6
Determine the concentration of a solution from a calibration curve
 

Benchmark A.9
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy (HL)
 
Indicator A.9.1
Explain the use of TMS as the reference standard
 
Indicator A.9.2
Analyse 1H NMR spectra
 

Benchmark A.10
Chromatography (HL)
 
Indicator A.10.1
Describe the techniques of GLC and HPLC
 
Indicator A.10.2
Deduce which chromatographic technique is best for particular mixture
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard B
  HUMAN BIOCHEMISTRY
 

Benchmark B.1
Energy
 
Indicator B.1.1
Calculate the energy value of a food from enthalpy of combustion data
 

Benchmark B.2
Proteins
 
Indicator B.2.1
Draw the general formula of 2-amino acids
 
Indicator B.2.2
Describe the characteristic properties of 2-amino acids
 
Indicator B.2.3
Describe the condensation rxn of 2-amino acids to form polypeptides
 
Indicator B.2.4
Describe primary, secondary, tertiary & quaternary protein structures
 
Indicator B.2.5
Explain how proteins can be analyzed by chromatography/electrophoresis
 
Indicator B.2.6
List the major functions of proteins in the body
 

Benchmark B.3
Carbohydrates
 
Indicator B.3.1
Describe the structural features of monosaccharides
 
Indicator B.3.2
Draw straight-chain and ring structural formulas of glucose & fructose
 
Indicator B.3.3
Describe condensation of monosaccharides to form di/poly saccharides
 
Indicator B.3.4
List the major functions of carbohydrates in the human body
 
Indicator B.3.5
Compare the structural properties of starch and cellulose
 
Indicator B.3.6
State what is meant by the term dietary fibre
 
Indicator B.3.7
Describe the importance of a diet high in dietary fibre
 

Benchmark B.4
Lipids
 
Indicator B.4.1
Compare the composition of the 3 types of lipids found in the body
 
Indicator B.4.2
Outline the difference between HDL & LDL cholesterol; importance
 
Indicator B.4.3
Describe the difference between saturated & unsaturated fatty acids
 
Indicator B.4.4
Compare the structures of linoleic & linolenic fatty acids; importance
 
Indicator B.4.5
Define iodine number: calculate # of C=C double bonds using addn rxns
 
Indicator B.4.6
Describe the condensation reaction necessary to make a triglyceride
 
Indicator B.4.7
Describe enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis of triglycerides during digestion
 
Indicator B.4.8
Explain the higher energy value of fats as compared to carbohydrates
 
Indicator B.4.9
Describe roles of lipids in the body & their negative health effects
 

Benchmark B.5
Micronutrients and Macronutrients
 
Indicator B.5.1
Outline the difference between micronutrients and macronutrients
 
Indicator B.5.2
Compare the structures of vitamins A, D, and C
 
Indicator B.5.3
Deduce whether a vitamin is water- or fat-soluble from its structure
 
Indicator B.5.4
Discuss causes & effects of nutrient deficiencies; suggest solutions
 

Benchmark B.6
Hormones
 
Indicator B.6.1
Outline the production and function of hormones in the body
 
Indicator B.6.2
Compare the structures of cholesterol and the sex hormones
 
Indicator B.6.3
Describe the mode of action of oral contraceptives
 
Indicator B.6.4
Outline the use and abuse of steroids
 

Benchmark B.7
Enzymes (HL)
 
Indicator B.7.1
Describe the characteristics of biological catalysts (enzymes)
 
Indicator B.7.2
Compare inorganic catalysts and biological catalysts (enzymes)
 
Indicator B.7.3
Describe the relationship between substrate conc. and enzyme activity
 
Indicator B.7.4
Determine Vmax and value of Michaelis constant by graphical means
 
Indicator B.7.5
Describe the mechanism of enzyme action
 
Indicator B.7.6
Compare competitive inhibition and non-competitive inhibition
 
Indicator B.7.7
State effects of heavy metal ions, temp/pH changes on enzyme activity
 

Benchmark B.8
Nucleic Acids (HL)
 
Indicator B.8.1
Describe the structure of nucleotides and their condensation polymers
 
Indicator B.8.2
Distinguish between the structures of DNA and RNA
 
Indicator B.8.3
Explain the double helical structure of DNA
 
Indicator B.8.4
Describe genetic role of DNA; explain its role in protein synthesis
 
Indicator B.8.5
Outline the steps involved in DNA profiling and state its use
 

Benchmark B.9
Respiration (HL)
 
Indicator B.9.1
Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration of glucose
 
Indicator B.9.2
Outline role of copper ions in e- transport; iron ions in O2 transport
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard C
  CHEMISTRY IN INDUSTRY AND TECHNOLOGY
 

Benchmark C.1
Iron, Steel and Aluminium
 
Indicator C.1.1
State the main sources of iron
 
Indicator C.1.2
Describe and explain the reactions that occur in the blast furnace
 
Indicator C.1.3
Describe the conversion of iron into steel using oxygen converter
 
Indicator C.1.4
Describe alloys as homogeneous mixture of metals or metal/non-metal
 
Indicator C.1.5
Explain how alloying can modify the properties of metals
 
Indicator C.1.6
Describe the effects of heat treatment of steel
 
Indicator C.1.7
Describe the properties and uses of iron and steel
 
Indicator C.1.8
Describe the production of aluminium by electrolysis of alumina
 
Indicator C.1.9
Describe main properties and uses of aluminium and its alloys
 
Indicator C.1.10
Discuss the environmental impact of iron and aluminium production
 

Benchmark C.2
The Oil Industry
 
Indicator C.2.1
Compare the use of oil as an energy source and as a chemical feedstock
 
Indicator C.2.2
Compare catalytic cracking, thermal cracking and steam cracking
 

Benchmark C.3
Addition Polymers
 
Indicator C.3.1
Describe how polymers' properties depend on their structural features
 
Indicator C.3.2
Describe the ways of modifying the properties of addition polymers
 
Indicator C.3.3
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of polymer use
 

Benchmark C.4
Catalysts
 
Indicator C.4.1
Compare the modes of action of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts
 
Indicator C.4.2
Outline advantages/disadvantages of homo/heterogeneous catalysts
 
Indicator C.4.3
Discuss the factors in choosing a catalyst for a process
 

Benchmark C.5
Fuel Cells and Rechargeable Batteries
 
Indicator C.5.1
Describe how a hydrogen–oxygen fuel cell works
 
Indicator C.5.2
Describe the workings of rechargeable batteries
 
Indicator C.5.3
Discuss similarities/differences: fuel cells v. rechargeable batteries
 

Benchmark C.6
Liquid Crystals
 
Indicator C.6.1
Describe the meaning of the term liquid crystals
 
Indicator C.6.2
Distinguish between thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals
 
Indicator C.6.3
Describe liquid-crystal state in terms of the arrangement of molecules
 
Indicator C.6.4
Outline the principles of the liquid crystal display device
 
Indicator C.6.5
Discuss necessary properties for substance in liquid-crystal displays
 

Benchmark C.7
Nanotechnology
 
Indicator C.7.1
Define the term nanotechnology
 
Indicator C.7.2
Distinguish between physical/chemical techniques in manipulating atoms
 
Indicator C.7.3
Describe the structure and properties of carbon nanotubes
 
Indicator C.7.4
Discuss some of the implications of nanotechnology
 

Benchmark C.8
Condensation Polymers (HL)
 
Indicator C.8.1
Distinguish between addition & condensation polymers: structures
 
Indicator C.8.2
Describe how condensation polymers are formed from their monomers
 
Indicator C.8.3
Describe how polymers' properties depend on their structural features
 
Indicator C.8.4
Describe ways of modifying the properties of polymers
 
Indicator C.8.5
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of polymer use
 

Benchmark C.9
Mechanisms in the Organic Chemicals Industry (HL)
 
Indicator C.9.1
Describe free-radical mechanism used to make low-density polyethene
 
Indicator C.9.2
Outline use of Ziegler-Natta catalysts to make high-density polyethene
 

Benchmark C.10
Silicon and Photovoltaic Cells (HL)
 
Indicator C.10.1
Describe doping of silicon to produce p-type & n-type semiconductors
 
Indicator C.10.2
Describe how sunlight interacts with semiconductors
 

Benchmark C.11
Liquid Crystals (HL)
 
Indicator C.11.1
Identify molecules with liquid-crystal properties; explain behaviour
 
Indicator C.11.2
Describe the workings of a twisted nematic liquid crystal
 
Indicator C.11.3
Describe liquid-crystal properties of Kevlar:strength/H2SO4 solubility
 

Benchmark C.12
The Chlor-Alkali Industry (HL)
 
Indicator C.12.1
Discuss chlorine/sodium hydroxide production by electrolysis
 
Indicator C.12.2
Outline some important uses of the products of this process
 
Indicator C.12.3
Discuss environmental impact of the processes for electrolysis of NaCl
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard D
  MEDICINES AND DRUGS
 

Benchmark D.1
Pharmaceutical Products
 
Indicator D.1.1
List the effects of medicines and drugs on the functioning of the body
 
Indicator D.1.2
Outline the stages involved in research, development, and testing
 
Indicator D.1.3
Describe the different methods of administering drugs
 
Indicator D.1.4
Discuss the terms therapeutic window, tolerance and side-effects
 

Benchmark D.2
Antacids
 
Indicator D.2.1
Explain how excess stomach acidity can be reduced by the use of bases
 

Benchmark D.3
Analgesics
 
Indicator D.3.1
Describe and explain the different ways that analgesics prevent pain
 
Indicator D.3.2
Describe the use of derivatives of salicylic acid as mild analgesics
 
Indicator D.3.3
Compare the structures of morphine, codeine, and diamorphine
 
Indicator D.3.4
Discuss advantages/disadvantages of using morphine as an analgesic
 

Benchmark D.4
Depressants
 
Indicator D.4.1
Describe the effects of depressants
 
Indicator D.4.2
Discuss the social & physiological effects of the use/abuse of ethanol
 
Indicator D.4.3
Describe the techniques used for ethanol detection
 
Indicator D.4.4
Describe the synergistic effects of ethanol with other drugs
 
Indicator D.4.5
Identify commonly used depressants and describe their structures
 

Benchmark D.5
Stimulants
 
Indicator D.5.1
List the physiological effects of stimulants
 
Indicator D.5.2
Compare amphetamines and epinephrine (adrenaline)
 
Indicator D.5.3
Discuss the short- and long-term effects of nicotine consumption
 
Indicator D.5.4
Describe the effects of caffeine and compare its structure to nicotine
 

Benchmark D.6
Antibacterials
 
Indicator D.6.1
Outline the historical development of penicillins
 
Indicator D.6.2
Explain how penicillins work & discuss side-chain modification effects
 
Indicator D.6.3
Discuss importance of patient compliance; effect of overprescription
 

Benchmark D.7
Antiviral
 
Indicator D.7.1
State how viruses differ from bacteria
 
Indicator D.7.2
Describe the different ways in which antiviral drugs work
 
Indicator D.7.3
Discuss the difficulties associated with solving the AIDS problem
 

Benchmark D.8
Drug Action (HL)
 
Indicator D.8.1
Describe the importance of geometrical isomerism in drug action
 
Indicator D.8.2
Discuss the importance of chirality in drug action
 
Indicator D.8.3
Explain the importance of the betalactam ring action of penicillin
 
Indicator D.8.4
Explain the increased potency of diamorphine compared to morphine
 

Benchmark D.9
Drug Design (HL)
 
Indicator D.9.1
Discuss the use of a compound library in drug design
 
Indicator D.9.2
Explain use of combinatorial/parallel chemistry to synthesize drugs
 
Indicator D.9.3
Describe how computers are used in drug design
 
Indicator D.9.4
Discuss how the polarity of a molecule can be modified
 
Indicator D.9.5
Describe the use of chiral auxiliaries to form the desired enantiomer
 

Benchmark D.10
Mind-Altering Drugs (HL)
 
Indicator D.10.1
Describe the effects of LSD, mescaline, psilocybin and THC
 
Indicator D.10.2
Discuss structural similarities & differences between LSD, mescaline
 
Indicator D.10.3
Discuss arguments for and against the legalization of cannabis
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard E
  ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
 

Benchmark E.1
Air Pollution
 
Indicator E.1.1
Describe sources of CO, NOx, SOx, particulates, VOCs in the atmosphere
 
Indicator E.1.2
Evaluate current methods for the reduction of air pollution
 

Benchmark E.2
Acid Deposition
 
Indicator E.2.1
State what is meant by "acid deposition" & outline its origins
 
Indicator E.2.2
Discuss the environmental effects of acid deposition
 

Benchmark E.3
Greenhouse Effect
 
Indicator E.3.1
Describe the greenhouse effect
 
Indicator E.3.2
List the greenhouse gases, their sources; discuss relative effects
 
Indicator E.3.3
Discuss the influence of increasing amounts of greenhouse gases
 

Benchmark E.4
Ozone Depletion
 
Indicator E.4.1
Describe the formation & depletion of ozone in the stratosphere
 
Indicator E.4.2
List the ozone-depleting pollutants and their sources
 
Indicator E.4.3
Discuss the alternatives to CFCs in terms of their properties
 

Benchmark E.5
Dissolved Oxygen in Water
 
Indicator E.5.1
Outline BOD as a measure of O2-demanding wastes in water
 
Indicator E.5.2
Distinguish between aerobic & anaerobic decomposition in water
 
Indicator E.5.3
Describe the process of eutrophication and its effects
 
Indicator E.5.4
Describe the source and effects of thermal pollution in water
 

Benchmark E.6
Water Treatment
 
Indicator E.6.1
List primary pollutants found in waste water; identify their sources
 
Indicator E.6.2
Outline stages of waste water treatment including substances removed
 
Indicator E.6.3
Evaluate the process to obtain fresh water from sea water
 

Benchmark E.7
Soil
 
Indicator E.7.1
Discuss the causes of soil degradation
 
Indicator E.7.2
Describe the relevance of the SOM in preventing soil degradation
 
Indicator E.7.3
List common organic soil pollutants and their sources
 

Benchmark E.8
Waste
 
Indicator E.8.1
Outline and compare various methods for waste disposal
 
Indicator E.8.2
Describe recycling of metal, glass, plastic & paper; outline benefits
 
Indicator E.8.3
Describe the characteristics of different types of radioactive waste
 
Indicator E.8.4
Compare storage & disposal methods for different radioactive wastes
 

Benchmark E.9
Ozone Depletion (HL)
 
Indicator E.9.1
Explain dependence of O2 & O3 dissociation on the wavelength of light
 
Indicator E.9.2
Describe the mechanism in the catalysis of O3 depletion by CFCs & NOx
 
Indicator E.9.3
Outline the reasons for greater ozone depletion in polar regions
 

Benchmark E.10
Smog (HL)
 
Indicator E.10.1
State source of primary pollutants & conditions needed to form smog
 
Indicator E.10.2
Outline the formation of secondary pollutants in photochemical smog
 

Benchmark E.11
Acid Deposition (HL)
 
Indicator E.11.1
Describe the mechanism of acid deposition caused by oxides
 
Indicator E.11.2
Explain the role of ammonia in acid deposition
 

Benchmark E.12
Water and Soil (HL)
 
Indicator E.12.1
Solve problems relating to water treatment by chemical precipitation
 
Indicator E.12.2
State what "cation-exchange capacity" means & outline its importance
 
Indicator E.12.3
Discuss the effects of soil pH on CEC and availability of nutrients
 
Indicator E.12.4
Describe the chemical functions of soil organic matter (SOM)
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard F
  FOOD CHEMISTRY
 

Benchmark F.1
Food Groups
 
Indicator F.1.1
Distinguish between a food and a nutrient
 
Indicator F.1.2
Describe the chemical composition of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins
 

Benchmark F.2
Fats and Oils
 
Indicator F.2.1
Describe difference in saturated/unsaturated fatty acid structures
 
Indicator F.2.2
Predict the degree of crystallization & melting pt. of fats & oils
 
Indicator F.2.3
Deduce the stability of fats and oils from their structure
 
Indicator F.2.4
Describe the process of hydrogenation and unsaturated fats
 
Indicator F.2.5
Discuss advantages & disadvantages of hydrogenating fats and oils
 

Benchmark F.3
Shelf Life
 
Indicator F.3.1
Explain the meaning of the term shelf life
 
Indicator F.3.2
Discuss the factors that affect the shelf life and quality of food
 
Indicator F.3.3
Describe the rancidity of fats
 
Indicator F.3.4
Compare the processes of hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity in lipids
 
Indicator F.3.5
Describe ways to minimize the rate of rancidity & prolong shelf life
 
Indicator F.3.6
Describe methods used by different cultures to extend food shelf life
 
Indicator F.3.7
Define the term antioxidant
 
Indicator F.3.8
List common naturally occurring antioxidants and their sources
 
Indicator F.3.9
Compare structural features of major synthetic antioxidants in food
 
Indicator F.3.10
Discuss advantages/disadvantages of natural/synthetic antioxidants
 
Indicator F.3.11
List some antioxidants found in the foods of different cultures
 

Benchmark F.4
Colour
 
Indicator F.4.1
Distinguish between a dye and a pigment
 
Indicator F.4.2
Explain occurrence of colour in naturally occurring pigments
 
Indicator F.4.3
Describe colour range & sources of naturally occurring pigments
 
Indicator F.4.4
Describe the factors that affect the colour stability of pigments
 
Indicator F.4.5
Discuss safety issues associated with the use of synthetic colorants
 
Indicator F.4.6
Compare the processes of non-enzymatic browning and carmelization
 

Benchmark F.5
Genetically Modified Foods
 
Indicator F.5.1
Define a genetically modified (GM) food
 
Indicator F.5.2
Discuss benefits and concerns of using GM food
 

Benchmark F.6
Texture
 
Indicator F.6.1
Describe a dispersed system in food
 
Indicator F.6.2
Distinguish between suspensions, emulsions and foams in food
 
Indicator F.6.3
Describe the action of emulsifiers
 

Benchmark F.7
Oxidative Rancidity (Auto-Oxidation)
 
Indicator F.7.1
Describe steps in the free-radical chain mechanism during rancidity
 

Benchmark F.8
Antioxidants
 
Indicator F.8.1
Explain the differences between the three main types of antioxidants
 

Benchmark F.9
Stereochemistry in Food
 
Indicator F.9.1
Explain the three different naming conventions for enantiomeric forms
 
Indicator F.9.2
Distinguish between the properties of the different enantiomeric forms
 

Benchmark F.10
Chemical Structure and Colour
 
Indicator F.10.1
Compare structural similarities & differences of the natural pigments
 
Indicator F.10.2
Explain why the natural pigments form coloured compounds
 
Indicator F.10.3
Deduce whether anthocyanins & carotenoids are H2O- or fat-soluble
 
SCI.IBCH
Standard G
  FURTHER ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
 

Benchmark G.1
Electrophilic Addition Reactions
 
Indicator G.1.1
Describe the electrophilic addition mechanisms of alkene-halogen rxns
 
Indicator G.1.2
Predict the formation of the major product in terms of stabilities
 

Benchmark G.2
Nucleophilic Addition Reactions
 
Indicator G.2.1
Describe the addition of hydrogen cyanide to aldehydes and ketones
 
Indicator G.2.2
Describe mechanism for addn of hydrogen cyanide to aldehydes/ketones
 
Indicator G.2.3
Describe the hydrolysis of cyanohydrins to form carboxylic acids
 

Benchmark G.3
Elimination Reactions
 
Indicator G.3.1
Describe the dehydration rxns of alcohols w/H3PO4 to form alkenes
 
Indicator G.3.2
Describe the mechanism for the elimination of water from alcohols
 

Benchmark G.4
Addition-Elimination Reactions
 
Indicator G.4.1
Describe the rxns of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with aldehydes/ketones
 

Benchmark G.5
Arenes
 
Indicator G.5.1
Describe and explain the structure of benzene using evidence
 
Indicator G.5.2
Describe the relative rates of hydrolysis of benzene compounds
 

Benchmark G.6
Organometallic Chemistry
 
Indicator G.6.1
Outline the formation of Grignard reagents
 
Indicator G.6.2
Describe rxns of Grignard reagents with water, CO2, aldehydes, ketones
 

Benchmark G.7
Reaction Pathways
 
Indicator G.7.1
Deduce reaction pathways given the starting materials and product
 

Benchmark G.8
Acid-Base Reactions
 
Indicator G.8.1
Describe the acidic properties of phenol, substituted phenol: bonding
 
Indicator G.8.2
Describe acidic properties of substituted carboxylic acids: bonding
 
Indicator G.8.3
Compare and explain the relative basicities of ammonia and amines
 

Benchmark G.9
Addition-Elimination Reactions
 
Indicator G.9.1
Describe the reactions of acid anhydrides with nucleophiles
 
Indicator G.9.2
Describe the reactions of acyl chlorides with nucleophiles
 
Indicator G.9.3
Explain rxns of acyl chlorides with nucleophiles: addition-elimination
 

Benchmark G.10
Electrophilic Substitution Reactions
 
Indicator G.10.1
Describe the nitration, chlorination, alkylation, acylation of benzene
 
Indicator G.10.2
Describe mechanisms for the nitration, chlorination, etc. of benzene
 
Indicator G.10.3
Describe mechanisms for nitration, chlorination, etc. of methylbenzene
 
Indicator G.10.4
Describe directing effects, relative rxn rates of diff. substituents
 

Benchmark G.11
Reaction Pathways
 
Indicator G.11.1
Deduce reaction pathways given the starting materials and the product


Essential - Standard, benchmark, or indicator from the VDOE Standards of Learning document. In the absence of VDOE standards for a given course, content subject to testing such as AP and IB can be labeled Essential.
Expected - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies to provide a context, a bridge, or an enhancement to the Essential SBIs.
Extended - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies generally used to differentiate instruction for advanced learners (Honors/GT)