Science Curriculum
  IB Physics
 

The Diploma Programme physics course includes the essential principles of the subject but also, through selection of options, allows teachers some flexibility to tailor the course to meet the needs of their students. The course is available at both standard level (SL) and higher level (HL), and therefore accommodates students who wish to study science in higher education and those who do not.

Last Updated: 06/15/10 09:53 AM
 
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 1
  PHYSICS AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENT
 

Benchmark 1.1
The Realm of Physics
 
Indicator 1.1.1
State and compare quantities to the nearest order of magnitude
 
Indicator 1.1.2
State ranges of distances, masses and times that occur in the universe
 
Indicator 1.1.3
State ratios of quantities as differences of orders of magnitude
 
Indicator 1.1.4
Estimate approximate values of everyday quantities
 

Benchmark 1.2
Measurement and Uncertainties
 
Indicator 1.2.1
State the fundamental Units of the SI system
 
Indicator 1.2.2
Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples
 
Indicator 1.2.3
Convert between different units of quantities
 
Indicator 1.2.4
State units in the accepted SI format
 
Indicator 1.2.5
State values in scientific notation and use appropriate prefixes
 
Indicator 1.2.6
Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors
 
Indicator 1.2.7
Distinguish between precision and accuracy
 
Indicator 1.2.8
Explain how the effects of random errors may be reduced
 
Indicator 1.2.9
Calculate quantities to the appropriate number of significant figures
 
Indicator 1.2.10
State uncertainties as absolute, fractional, and percentages
 
Indicator 1.2.11
Determine the uncertainties in results
 
Indicator 1.2.12
Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs
 
Indicator 1.2.13
State random uncertainty as a range and graphically as an error bar
 
Indicator 1.2.14
Determine the uncertainties of a straight line graph
 

Benchmark 1.3
Vectors and Scalars
 
Indicator 1.3.1
Distinguish between vector & scalar quantities; give examples of each
 
Indicator 1.3.2
Determine the sum or difference of two vectors by a graphical method
 
Indicator 1.3.3
Resolve vectors into perpendicular components along chosen axes
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 2
  MECHANICS
 

Benchmark 2.1
Kinematics
 
Indicator 2.1.1
Define displacement, velocity, speed and acceleration
 
Indicator 2.1.2
Explain the difference between instantaneous and average values
 
Indicator 2.1.3
Outline the conditions in which uniformly accelerated motion may apply
 
Indicator 2.1.4
Identify the acceleration of a body falling in a vacuum near the Earth
 
Indicator 2.1.5
Solve problems involving the equations of uniformly accelerated motion
 
Indicator 2.1.6
Describe the effects of air resistance on falling objects.
 
Indicator 2.1.7
Draw distance-, displacement-, velocity- & acceleration-time graphs
 
Indicator 2.1.8
Calculate and interpret the gradients of displacement-time graphs
 
Indicator 2.1.9
Determine relative velocity in one and in two dimensions
 

Benchmark 2.2
Forces and Dynamics
 
Indicator 2.2.1
Calculate the weight of a body using the expression W = mg
 
Indicator 2.2.2
Identify the forces acting on an object and draw free-body diagrams
 
Indicator 2.2.3
Determine the resultant force in different situations
 
Indicator 2.2.4
State Newton’s first law of motion
 
Indicator 2.2.5
Describe examples of Newton’s first law
 
Indicator 2.2.6
State the condition for translational equilibrium
 
Indicator 2.2.7
Solve problems involving translational equilibrium
 
Indicator 2.2.8
State Newton’s second law of motion
 
Indicator 2.2.9
Solve problems involving Newton’s second law
 
Indicator 2.2.10
Define linear momentum and impulse
 
Indicator 2.2.11
Determine impulse of time-varying force by studying force-time graph
 
Indicator 2.2.12
State the law of conservation of linear momentum
 
Indicator 2.2.13
Solve problems involving momentum and impulse
 
Indicator 2.2.14
State Newton's third law of motion
 
Indicator 2.2.15
Discuss examples of Newton’s third law
 

Benchmark 2.3
Work, Energy and Power
 
Indicator 2.3.1
Outline what is meant by work
 
Indicator 2.3.2
Determine the work done by interpreting a force-displacement graph
 
Indicator 2.3.3
Solve problems involving the work done by a force
 
Indicator 2.3.4
Outline what is meant by kinetic energy
 
Indicator 2.3.5
Outline what is meant by change in gravitational potential energy
 
Indicator 2.3.6
State the principle of conservation of energy
 
Indicator 2.3.7
List different forms of energy; describe examples of transformation
 
Indicator 2.3.8
Distinguish between elastic and inelastic collisions
 
Indicator 2.3.9
Define power
 
Indicator 2.3.10
Define and apply the concept of efficiency
 
Indicator 2.3.11
Solve problems involving momentum, work, energy and power
 

Benchmark 2.4
Uniform Circular Motion
 
Indicator 2.4.1
Draw a vector diagram to illustrate the direction of the acceleration
 
Indicator 2.4.2
Apply the expression for centripetal acceleration
 
Indicator 2.4.3
Identify the force producing circular motion in various situations
 
Indicator 2.4.4
Solve problems involving circular motion
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 3
  THERMAL PHYSICS
 

Benchmark 3.1
Thermal Concepts
 
Indicator 3.1.1
State how temperature determines the direction of energy transfer
 
Indicator 3.1.2
State the relation between the Kelvin & Celsius scales of temperature
 
Indicator 3.1.3
State the internal energy of a substance
 
Indicator 3.1.4
Explain & distinguish between temperature, internal energy and heat
 
Indicator 3.1.5
Define the mole and molar mass
 
Indicator 3.1.6
Define the Avogadro constant
 

Benchmark 3.2
Thermal Properties of Matter
 
Indicator 3.2.1
Define specific heat capacity and thermal capacity
 
Indicator 3.2.2
Solve problems involving specific heat capacities & thermal capacities
 
Indicator 3.2.3
Explain the physical differences between solid, liquid, gaseous phases
 
Indicator 3.2.4
Describe the process of phase changes in terms of molecular behaviour
 
Indicator 3.2.5
Explain why temperature does not change during a phase change
 
Indicator 3.2.6
Distinguish between evaporation and boiling
 
Indicator 3.2.7
Define specific latent heat
 
Indicator 3.2.8
Solve problems involving specific latent heats
 
Indicator 3.2.9
Define pressure
 
Indicator 3.2.10
State the assumptions of the kinetic model of an ideal gas
 
Indicator 3.2.11
State that temperature is a measure of average random kinetic energy
 
Indicator 3.2.12
Explain the macroscopic behaviour of an ideal gas in molecular terms
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 4
  OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES
 

Benchmark 4.1
Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
 
Indicator 4.1.1
Describe examples of oscillations
 
Indicator 4.1.2
Define displacement, amplitude, frequency, period, phase difference
 
Indicator 4.1.3
Define simple harmonic motion and state the defining equation
 
Indicator 4.1.4
Solve problems using the defining equations for SHM
 
Indicator 4.1.5
Apply equations as solutions to the defining equation for SHM
 
Indicator 4.1.6
Solve problems for acceleration, velocity and displacement during SHM
 

Benchmark 4.2
Energy Changes During Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
 
Indicator 4.2.1
Describe the interchange between kinetic & potential energy during SHM
 
Indicator 4.2.2
Apply expressions for kinetic, total, and potential energy in SHM
 
Indicator 4.2.3
Solve problems involving energy changes during SHM
 

Benchmark 4.3
Forced Oscillations and Resonance
 
Indicator 4.3.1
State what is meant by damping
 
Indicator 4.3.2
Describe examples of damped oscillations
 
Indicator 4.3.3
Explain natural frequency of vibration and forced oscillations
 
Indicator 4.3.4
Describe graphically the variation of the amplitude of vibration
 
Indicator 4.3.5
State what is meant by resonance
 
Indicator 4.3.6
Describe examples of resonance and where it is useful or not
 

Benchmark 4.4
Wave Characteristics
 
Indicator 4.4.1
Describe a wave pulse and a continuous progressive wave
 
Indicator 4.4.2
State that progressive waves transfer energy
 
Indicator 4.4.3
Describe and give examples of transverse and of longitudinal waves
 
Indicator 4.4.4
Describe waves in two dimensions
 
Indicator 4.4.5
Describe the terms crest, trough, compression and rarefaction
 
Indicator 4.4.6
Define displacement, amplitude, frequency, period, wavelength, etc.
 
Indicator 4.4.7
Draw & explain displacement-time and displacement-position graphs
 
Indicator 4.4.8
Derive & apply the relationship between wave speed, wavelength, etc.
 
Indicator 4.4.9
State how all EM waves travel in free space; recall EM wavelengths
 

Benchmark 4.5
Wave Properties
 
Indicator 4.5.1
Describe reflection and transmission of waves at a boundary
 
Indicator 4.5.2
State and apply Snell's law
 
Indicator 4.5.3
Explain and discuss the diffraction of waves at apertures & obstacles
 
Indicator 4.5.4
Describe examples of diffraction
 
Indicator 4.5.5
State the principle of superposition; explain types of interference
 
Indicator 4.5.6
State conditions for interference in terms of path & phase differences
 
Indicator 4.5.7
Apply principle of superposition to determine the result of two waves
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 5
  ELECTRIC CURRENTS
 

Benchmark 5.1
Electric Potential Difference, Current and Resistance
 
Indicator 5.1.1
Define electric potential difference
 
Indicator 5.1.2
Determine change in potential energy when a charge moves between 2 pts
 
Indicator 5.1.3
Define the electronvolt
 
Indicator 5.1.4
Solve problems involving electric potential difference
 
Indicator 5.1.5
Define electric current
 
Indicator 5.1.6
Define resistance
 
Indicator 5.1.7
Apply the equation for resistance
 
Indicator 5.1.8
State Ohm’s law
 
Indicator 5.1.9
Compare ohmic and non-ohmic behaviour
 
Indicator 5.1.10
Derive expressions for electrical power dissipation in resistors
 
Indicator 5.1.11
Solve problems involving potential difference, current and resistance
 

Benchmark 5.2
Electric Circuits
 
Indicator 5.2.1
Define electromotive force (emf)
 
Indicator 5.2.2
Describe the concept of internal resistance
 
Indicator 5.2.3
Apply the equations for resistors in series and in parallel
 
Indicator 5.2.4
Draw circuit diagrams
 
Indicator 5.2.5
Describe the use of ideal ammeters and ideal voltmeters
 
Indicator 5.2.6
Describe a potential divider
 
Indicator 5.2.7
Explain the use of sensors in potential divider circuits
 
Indicator 5.2.8
Solve problems involving electric circuits
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 6
  FIELDS AND FORCES
 

Benchmark 6.1
Gravitational Force and Field
 
Indicator 6.1.1
State Newton’s universal law of gravitation
 
Indicator 6.1.2
Define gravitational field strength
 
Indicator 6.1.3
Determine the gravitational field due to one or more point masses
 
Indicator 6.1.4
Derive an expression for gravitational field strength
 
Indicator 6.1.5
Solve problems involving gravitational forces and fields
 

Benchmark 6.2
Electric Force and Field
 
Indicator 6.2.1
State that there are two types of electric charge
 
Indicator 6.2.2
State and apply the law of conservation of charge
 
Indicator 6.2.3
Explain the difference in electrical properties: conductors,insulators
 
Indicator 6.2.4
State Coulomb’s law
 
Indicator 6.2.5
Define electric field strength
 
Indicator 6.2.6
Determine the electric field strength due to one or more point charges
 
Indicator 6.2.7
Draw the electric field patterns for different charge configurations
 
Indicator 6.2.8
Solve problems involving electric charges, forces and fields
 

Benchmark 6.3
Magnetic Force and Field
 
Indicator 6.3.1
State that moving charges give rise to magnetic fields
 
Indicator 6.3.2
Draw magnetic field patterns due to currents
 
Indicator 6.3.3
Determine direction of the force on a conductor in a magnetic field
 
Indicator 6.3.4
Determine direction of the force on a charge moving in magnetic field
 
Indicator 6.3.5
Define the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field
 
Indicator 6.3.6
Solve problems involving magnetic forces, fields and currents
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 7
  ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
 

Benchmark 7.1
The Atom
 
Indicator 7.1.1
Describe a model of the atom: small nucleus surrounded by electrons
 
Indicator 7.1.2
Outline the evidence that supports a nuclear model of the atom
 
Indicator 7.1.3
Outline one limitation of the simple model of the nuclear atom
 
Indicator 7.1.4
Outline evidence for the existence of atomic energy levels
 
Indicator 7.1.5
Explain the terms nuclide, isotope and nucleon
 
Indicator 7.1.6
Define nucleon number A, proton number Z and neutron number N
 
Indicator 7.1.7
Describe the interactions of the nucleus
 

Benchmark 7.2
Radioactive Decay
 
Indicator 7.2.1
Describe the phenomenon of natural radioactive decay
 
Indicator 7.2.2
Describe the properties of alpha & beta particles and gamma radiation
 
Indicator 7.2.3
Describe ionizing properties: alpha & beta particles & gamma radiation
 
Indicator 7.2.4
Outline the biological effects of ionizing radiation
 
Indicator 7.2.5
Explain why some nuclei are stable while others are unstable
 
Indicator 7.2.6
State that radioactive decay is random & spontaneous and discuss rate
 
Indicator 7.2.7
Define the term radioactive half-life
 
Indicator 7.2.8
Determine the half-life of a nuclide from decay curve
 
Indicator 7.2.9
Solve radioactive decay problems with integral numbers of half-lives
 

Benchmark 7.3
Nuclear Reactions, Fission and Fusion
 
Indicator 7.3.1
Describe and give an example of an artificial (induced) transmutation
 
Indicator 7.3.2
Construct and complete nuclear equations
 
Indicator 7.3.3
Define the term unified atomic mass unit
 
Indicator 7.3.4
Apply Einstein mass-energy equivalence relationship
 
Indicator 7.3.5
Define mass defect, binding energy, and binding energy per nucleon
 
Indicator 7.3.6
Draw a graph of the variation of nucleon number with binding energy
 
Indicator 7.3.7
Solve problems involving mass defect and binding energy
 
Indicator 7.3.8
Describe the processes of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
 
Indicator 7.3.9
Apply the graph in 7.3.6 to account for energy release
 
Indicator 7.3.10
State that nuclear fusion is the main source of the Sun’s energy
 
Indicator 7.3.11
Solve problems involving fission and fusion reactions
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 8
  ENERGY, POWER AND CLIMATE CHANGE
 

Benchmark 8.1
Energy Degradation and Power Generation
 
Indicator 8.1.1
State that thermal energy may be converted to work
 
Indicator 8.1.2
Explain what is meant by degraded energy
 
Indicator 8.1.3
Construct Sankey diagrams and identify where the energy is degraded
 
Indicator 8.1.4
Outline the mechanisms involved in the production of electrical power
 

Benchmark 8.2
World Energy Sources
 
Indicator 8.2.1
Identify different world energy sources
 
Indicator 8.2.2
Distinguish between renewable and non-renewable energy sources
 
Indicator 8.2.3
Define the energy density of a fuel
 
Indicator 8.2.4
Discuss how choice of fuel is influenced by its energy density
 
Indicator 8.2.5
State the relative proportions of world use of energy sources
 
Indicator 8.2.6
Discuss relative advantages & disadvantages of various energy sources
 

Benchmark 8.3
Fossil Fuel Power Production
 
Indicator 8.3.1
Outline historical/geographical reasons for widespread fossil fuel use
 
Indicator 8.3.2
Discuss the energy density of fossil fuels & demands of power stations
 
Indicator 8.3.3
Discuss advantages/disadvantages of fossil fuel storage & transport
 
Indicator 8.3.4
State the overall efficiency of power stations fuelled by fossil fuels
 
Indicator 8.3.5
Describe the environmental problems with recovery of fossil fuels
 

Benchmark 8.4
Non-Fossil Fuel Power Production
 
Indicator 8.4.1
Explain how neutrons produced in fission may initiate a chain reaction
 
Indicator 8.4.2
Compare controlled nuclear fission and uncontrolled nuclear fission
 
Indicator 8.4.3
Describe what is meant by fuel enrichment
 
Indicator 8.4.4
Describe the main energy transformations in a nuclear power station
 
Indicator 8.4.5
Discuss the role of the moderator & control rods in controlled fission
 
Indicator 8.4.6
Discuss the role of the heat exchanger in a fission reactor
 
Indicator 8.4.7
Describe the production of plutonium-239 by uranium-239
 
Indicator 8.4.8
Describe the importance of plutonium-239 as a nuclear fuel
 
Indicator 8.4.9
Discuss safety issues & risks associated with nuclear power
 
Indicator 8.4.10
Outline the problems with producing nuclear power using nuclear fusion
 
Indicator 8.4.11
Solve problems on the production of nuclear power
 
Indicator 8.4.12
Distinguish between a photovoltaic cell and a solar heating panel
 
Indicator 8.4.13
Outline reasons for seasonal and regional variations in solar power
 
Indicator 8.4.14
Solve problems involving photovoltaic cells and solar heating panels
 
Indicator 8.4.15
Distinguish between different hydroelectric schemes
 
Indicator 8.4.16
Describe the main energy transformations in hydroelectric schemes
 
Indicator 8.4.17
Solve problems involving hydroelectric schemes
 
Indicator 8.4.18
Outline the basic features of a wind generator
 
Indicator 8.4.19
Determine the power that may be delivered by a wind generator
 
Indicator 8.4.20
Solve problems involving wind power
 
Indicator 8.4.21
Describe the operation of an OWC ocean-wave energy converter
 
Indicator 8.4.22
Determine the power per unit length of a wavefront
 
Indicator 8.4.23
Solve problems involving wave power
 

Benchmark 8.5
Greenhouse Effect
 
Indicator 8.5.1
Calculate the intensity of the Sun’s radiation incident on the planet
 
Indicator 8.5.2
Define albedo
 
Indicator 8.5.3
State factors that determine a planet's albedo
 
Indicator 8.5.4
Describe the greenhouse effect
 
Indicator 8.5.5
Identify the main greenhouse gases and their sources
 
Indicator 8.5.6
Explain the molecular mechanisms by which greenhouse gases absorb IR
 
Indicator 8.5.7
Analyse absorption graphs to compare the effects of different gases
 
Indicator 8.5.8
Outline the nature of black-body radiation
 
Indicator 8.5.9
Draw a graph of the emission spectra of black bodies
 
Indicator 8.5.10
State the Stefan-Boltzmann law; apply it to compare emission rates
 
Indicator 8.5.11
Apply the concept of emissivity to compare emission rates
 
Indicator 8.5.12
Define surface heat capacity
 
Indicator 8.5.13
Solve greenhouse effect & planet heating problems with a climate model
 

Benchmark 8.6
Global Warming
 
Indicator 8.6.1
Describe some possible models of global warming
 
Indicator 8.6.2
State what is meant by the enhanced greenhouse effect
 
Indicator 8.6.3
Identify the likely major cause of the enhanced greenhouse effect
 
Indicator 8.6.4
Describe evidence linking global warming to increased greenhouse gases
 
Indicator 8.6.5
Outline some mechanisms that may increase the rate of global warming
 
Indicator 8.6.6
Define coefficient of volume expansion
 
Indicator 8.6.7
State that possible effect is a rise in mean sea-level
 
Indicator 8.6.8
Outline possible reasons for a predicted rise in mean sea-level
 
Indicator 8.6.9
Identify climate change as an outcome of the greenhouse effect
 
Indicator 8.6.10
Solve problems related to the enhanced greenhouse effect
 
Indicator 8.6.11
Identify possible solutions to reduce the enhanced greenhouse effect
 
Indicator 8.6.12
Discuss international efforts to reduce the enhanced greenhouse effect
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 9
  MOTION IN FIELDS
 

Benchmark 9.1
Projectile Motion
 
Indicator 9.1.1
State independence of the vertical & horizontal components of velocity
 
Indicator 9.1.2
Describe and sketch the trajectory of projectile motion as parabolic
 
Indicator 9.1.3
Describe the effect of air resistance on trajectory of a projectile
 
Indicator 9.1.4
Solve problems on projectile motion
 

Benchmark 9.2
Gravitational Field, Potential and Energy
 
Indicator 9.2.1
Define gravitational potential and gravitational potential energy
 
Indicator 9.2.2
Apply the expression for gravitational potential due to a point mass
 
Indicator 9.2.3
Apply the formula relating field strength to potential gradient
 
Indicator 9.2.4
Determine the potential due to one or more point masses
 
Indicator 9.2.5
Describe the pattern of equipotential surfaces due to point masses
 
Indicator 9.2.6
Relate equipotential surfaces and gravitational field lines
 
Indicator 9.2.7
Explain the concept of escape speed from a planet
 
Indicator 9.2.8
Derive an expression for the escape speed of an object from a planet
 
Indicator 9.2.9
Solve gravitational potential energy/gravitational potential problems
 

Benchmark 9.3
Electric Field, Potential and Energy
 
Indicator 9.3.1
Define electric potential and electric potential energy
 
Indicator 9.3.2
State & apply expression for electric potential due to a point charge
 
Indicator 9.3.3
Apply formula relating electric field strength to potential gradient
 
Indicator 9.3.4
Determine the potential due to one or more point charges
 
Indicator 9.3.5
Describe the pattern of equipotential surfaces due to point charges
 
Indicator 9.3.6
State the relation between equipotential surfaces and electric field
 
Indicator 9.3.7
Solve problems involving electric potential energy and potential
 

Benchmark 9.4
Orbital Motion
 
Indicator 9.4.1
State that gravitation provides the centripetal force for orbits
 
Indicator 9.4.2
Derive Kepler's third law
 
Indicator 9.4.3
Derive expressions for the types of energy of an orbiting satellite
 
Indicator 9.4.4
Sketch graphs showing the variation with orbital radius and energies
 
Indicator 9.4.5
Discuss “weightlessness” in orbital motion, free fall, and deep space
 
Indicator 9.4.6
Solve problems involving orbital motion
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 10
  THERMAL PHYSICS
 

Benchmark 10.1
Thermodynamics
 
Indicator 10.1.1
State the equation of state for an ideal gas
 
Indicator 10.1.2
Describe the difference between an ideal gas and a real gas
 
Indicator 10.1.3
Describe the concept of absolute zero and the Kelvin scale
 
Indicator 10.1.4
Solve problems using the equation of state of an ideal gas
 

Benchmark 10.2
Processes
 
Indicator 10.2.1
Deduce an expression for the work involved in a volume change of a gas
 
Indicator 10.2.2
State the first law of thermodynamics
 
Indicator 10.2.3
Identify the first law of thermodynamics
 
Indicator 10.2.4
Describe a variety of changes of state of an ideal gas
 
Indicator 10.2.5
Annotate the thermodynamic processes & cycles on P-V diagrams
 
Indicator 10.2.6
Calculate from a P-V diagram the work done in a thermodynamic cycle
 
Indicator 10.2.7
Solve problems involving state changes of a gas
 

Benchmark 10.3
Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy
 
Indicator 10.3.1
State the second law of thermodynamics
 
Indicator 10.3.2
State that entropy expresses the degree of disorder in the system
 
Indicator 10.3.3
State the second law of thermodynamics in terms of entropy changes
 
Indicator 10.3.4
Discuss examples of natural processes in terms of entropy changes
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 11
  WAVE PHENOMENA
 

Benchmark 11.1
Standing (Stationary) Waves
 
Indicator 11.1.1
Describe the nature of standing (stationary) waves
 
Indicator 11.1.2
Explain the formation of one-dimensional standing waves
 
Indicator 11.1.3
Discuss modes of vibration of strings & air in open & in closed pipes
 
Indicator 11.1.4
Compare standing waves and travelling waves
 
Indicator 11.1.5
Solve problems involving standing waves
 

Benchmark 11.2
Doppler Effect
 
Indicator 11.2.1
Describe what is meant by the Doppler effect
 
Indicator 11.2.2
Explain the Doppler effect by reference to wavefront diagrams
 
Indicator 11.2.3
Apply the Doppler effect equations for sound
 
Indicator 11.2.4
Solve problems on the Doppler effect for sound
 
Indicator 11.2.5
Solve problems on the Doppler effect for electromagnetic waves
 
Indicator 11.2.6
Outline an example in which Doppler effect is used to measure speed
 

Benchmark 11.3
Diffraction
 
Indicator 11.3.1
Sketch the variation of the relative intensity of light
 
Indicator 11.3.2
Derive the formula for the position of the first minimum
 
Indicator 11.3.3
Solve problems involving single-slit diffraction
 

Benchmark 11.4
Resolution
 
Indicator 11.4.1
Sketch the variation of the relative intensity of light
 
Indicator 11.4.2
State the Rayleigh criterion for images of two sources to be resolved
 
Indicator 11.4.3
Describe the significance of resolution in development of devices
 
Indicator 11.4.4
Solve problems involving resolution
 

Benchmark 11.5
Polarization
 
Indicator 11.5.1
Describe what is meant by polarized light
 
Indicator 11.5.2
Describe polarization by reflection
 
Indicator 11.5.3
State and apply Brewster's law
 
Indicator 11.5.4
Explain the terms polarizer and analyser
 
Indicator 11.5.5
Calculate the intensity of a beam of light using Malus' law
 
Indicator 11.5.6
Describe what is meant by an optically active substance
 
Indicator 11.5.7
Describe the use of polarization to determine solution concentration
 
Indicator 11.5.8
Outline qualitatively how polarization may be used in stress analysis
 
Indicator 11.5.9
Outline qualitatively the action of liquid-crystal displays (LCDs)
 
Indicator 11.5.10
Solve problems involving the polarization of light
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 12
  ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
 

Benchmark 12.1
Induced Electromotive Force (emf)
 
Indicator 12.1.1
Describe the inducing of an emf by motion between a conductor & field
 
Indicator 12.1.2
Derive the formula for the emf induced in a straight conductor
 
Indicator 12.1.3
Define magnetic flux and magnetic flux linkage
 
Indicator 12.1.4
Describe the production of an induced emf by a time-changing flux
 
Indicator 12.1.5
State Faraday's law and Lenz's law
 
Indicator 12.1.6
Solve electromagnetic induction problems
 

Benchmark 12.2
Alternating Current
 
Indicator 12.2.1
Describe the emf induced in a coil rotating within a uniform field
 
Indicator 12.2.2
Explain the operation of a basic alternating current (ac) generator
 
Indicator 12.2.3
Describe the effect on the induced emf of changing generator frequency
 
Indicator 12.2.4
Discuss what is meant by the root mean squared of an ac or voltage
 
Indicator 12.2.5
State the relation between peak & rms values for currents and voltages
 
Indicator 12.2.6
Solve problems using peak and rms values
 
Indicator 12.2.7
Solve ac circuit problems for ohmic resistors
 
Indicator 12.2.8
Describe the operation of an ideal transformer
 

Benchmark 12.3
Transmission of Electrical Power
 
Indicator 12.3.1
Outline reasons for power losses in transmission lines & transformers
 
Indicator 12.3.2
Explain the use of high-voltage step-up and step-down transformers
 
Indicator 12.3.3
Solve problems on operation of real transformers & power transmission
 
Indicator 12.3.4
Suggest how extra-low-frequency EM fields induce currents in body
 
Indicator 12.3.5
Discuss possible risks involved in living and working near power lines
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 13
  QUANTUM PHYSICS AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
 

Benchmark 13.1
Quantum Physics
 
Indicator 13.1.1
Describe the photoelectric effect
 
Indicator 13.1.2
Describe concept of the photon; use it to explain photoelectric effect
 
Indicator 13.1.3
Describe and explain an experiment to test the Einstein model
 
Indicator 13.1.4
Solve problems involving the photoelectric effect
 
Indicator 13.1.5
Describe the de Broglie hypothesis and the concept of matter waves
 
Indicator 13.1.6
Outline an experiment to verify the de Broglie hypothesis
 
Indicator 13.1.7
Solve problems involving matter waves
 
Indicator 13.1.8
Outline a procedure for producing and observing atomic spectra
 
Indicator 13.1.9
Explain how atomic spectra provide evidence for quantization of energy
 
Indicator 13.1.10
Calculate wavelengths of spectral lines for energy level differences
 
Indicator 13.1.11
Explain the origin of atomic energy levels using "electron in a box"
 
Indicator 13.1.12
Outline the Schrödinger model of the hydrogen atom
 
Indicator 13.1.13
Outline the Heisenberg uncertainty principle
 

Benchmark 13.2
Nuclear Physics
 
Indicator 13.2.1
Explain how the radii of nuclei may be estimated
 
Indicator 13.2.2
Describe how the masses of nuclei may be determined
 
Indicator 13.2.3
Describe one piece of evidence for existence of nuclear energy levels
 
Indicator 13.2.4
Describe beta decay, including the existence of the neutrino
 
Indicator 13.2.5
State the radioactive decay law as an exponential function
 
Indicator 13.2.6
Derive the relationship between decay constant and half-life
 
Indicator 13.2.7
Outline methods for measuring the half-life of an isotope
 
Indicator 13.2.8
Solve problems involving radioactive half-life
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard 14
  DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY
 

Benchmark 14.1
Analogue and Digital Signals
 
Indicator 14.1.1
Solve conversion problems between binary numbers & decimal numbers
 
Indicator 14.1.2
Describe different means of storage of information: analogue & digital
 
Indicator 14.1.3
Explain how interference of light is used to recover information
 
Indicator 14.1.4
Calculate an appropriate depth for a pit from the laser's wavelength
 
Indicator 14.1.5
Solve problems on CDs and DVDs related to data storage capacity
 
Indicator 14.1.6
Discuss advantages of storage of information in digital v. analogue
 
Indicator 14.1.7
Discuss the implications for society of ever-increasing data storage
 

Benchmark 14.2
Data Capture; Digital Imaging Using Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs)
 
Indicator 14.2.1
Define capacitance
 
Indicator 14.2.2
Describe the structure of a charge-coupled device (CCD)
 
Indicator 14.2.3
Explain how incident light causes charge to build up within a pixel
 
Indicator 14.2.4
Outline how the image on a CCD is digitized
 
Indicator 14.2.5
Define quantum efficiency of a pixel
 
Indicator 14.2.6
Define magnification
 
Indicator 14.2.7
State the minimum requirements to just resolve an object on a CCD
 
Indicator 14.2.8
Discuss the effects of quantum efficiency, etc. on image quality
 
Indicator 14.2.9
Describe a range of practical uses of CCD; list advantages over film
 
Indicator 14.2.10
Outline how the image stored in a CCD is retrieved
 
Indicator 14.2.11
Solve problems involving the use of CCDs
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard A
  SIGHT AND WAVE PHENOMENA
 

Benchmark A.1
The Eye and Sight
 
Indicator A.1.1
Describe the basic structure of the human eye
 
Indicator A.1.2
State and explain the process of depth of vision and accommodation
 
Indicator A.1.3
State that the retina contains rods & cones; describe the surface
 
Indicator A.1.4
Describe the function of rods & cones in photopic and scotopic vision
 
Indicator A.1.5
Describe colour mixing of light by addition and subtraction
 
Indicator A.1.6
Discuss the effect of light, dark, and colour on perception of objects
 

Benchmark A.2
Standing (Stationary) Waves
 
Indicator A.2.1
Describe the nature of standing (stationary) waves
 
Indicator A.2.2
Explain the formation of one-dimensional standing waves
 
Indicator A.2.3
Discuss modes of vibration of strings & air in open & in closed pipes
 
Indicator A.2.4
Compare standing waves and travelling waves
 
Indicator A.2.5
Solve problems involving standing waves
 

Benchmark A.3
Doppler Effect
 
Indicator A.3.1
Describe what is meant by the Doppler effect
 
Indicator A.3.2
Explain the Doppler effect by reference to wavefront diagrams
 
Indicator A.3.3
Apply the Doppler effect equations for sound
 
Indicator A.3.4
Solve problems on the Doppler effect for sound
 
Indicator A.3.5
Solve problems on the Doppler effect for electromagnetic waves
 
Indicator A.3.6
Outline an example in which Doppler effect is used to measure speed
 

Benchmark A.4
Diffraction
 
Indicator A.4.1
Sketch the variation of the relative intensity of light
 
Indicator A.4.2
Derive the formula for the position of the first minimum
 
Indicator A.4.3
Solve problems involving single-slit diffraction
 

Benchmark A.5
Resolution
 
Indicator A.5.1
Sketch the variation of the relative intensity of light
 
Indicator A.5.2
State the Rayleigh criterion for images of two sources to be resolved
 
Indicator A.5.3
Describe the significance of resolution in the development of devices
 
Indicator A.5.4
Solve problems involving resolution
 

Benchmark A.6
Polarization
 
Indicator A.6.1
Describe what is meant by polarized light
 
Indicator A.6.2
Describe polarization by reflection
 
Indicator A.6.3
State and apply Brewster's law
 
Indicator A.6.4
Explain the terms polarizer and analyser
 
Indicator A.6.5
Calculate the intensity of a beam of light using Malus' law
 
Indicator A.6.6
Describe what is meant by an optically active substance
 
Indicator A.6.7
Describe the use of polarization to determine solution concentration
 
Indicator A.6.8
Outline qualitatively how polarization may be used in stress analysis
 
Indicator A.6.9
Outline qualitatively the action of liquid-crystal displays (LCDs)
 
Indicator A.6.10
Solve problems involving the polarization of light
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard B
  QUANTUM PHYSICS AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
 

Benchmark B.1
Quantum Physics
 
Indicator B.1.1
Describe the photoelectric effect
 
Indicator B.1.2
Describe concept of the photon; use it to explain photoelectric effect
 
Indicator B.1.3
Describe and explain an experiment to test the Einstein model
 
Indicator B.1.4
Solve problems involving the photoelectric effect
 
Indicator B.1.5
Describe the de Broglie hypothesis and the concept of matter waves
 
Indicator B.1.6
Outline an experiment to verify the de Broglie hypothesis
 
Indicator B.1.7
Solve problems involving matter waves
 
Indicator B.1.8
Outline a procedure for producing and observing atomic spectra
 
Indicator B.1.9
Explain how atomic spectra provide evidence for quantization of energy
 
Indicator B.1.10
Calculate wavelengths of spectral lines from energy level differences
 
Indicator B.1.11
Explain the origin of atomic energy levels using "electron in a box"
 
Indicator B.1.12
Outline the Schrödinger model of the hydrogen atom
 
Indicator B.1.13
Outline the Heisenberg uncertainty principle
 

Benchmark B.2
Nuclear Physics
 
Indicator B.2.1
Explain how the radii of nuclei may be estimated
 
Indicator B.2.2
Describe how the masses of nuclei may be determined
 
Indicator B.2.3
Describe one piece of evidence for existence of nuclear energy levels
 
Indicator B.2.4
Describe beta decay, including the existence of the neutrino
 
Indicator B.2.5
State the radioactive decay law as an exponential function
 
Indicator B.2.6
Derive the relationship between decay constant and half-life
 
Indicator B.2.7
Outline methods for measuring the half-life of an isotope
 
Indicator B.2.8
Solve problems involving radioactive half-life
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard C
  DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY
 

Benchmark C.1
Analogue and Digital Signals
 
Indicator C.1.1
Solve conversion problems between binary numbers & decimal numbers
 
Indicator C.1.2
Describe different means of storage of information; analogue & digital
 
Indicator C.1.3
Explain how interference of light is used to recover information
 
Indicator C.1.4
Calculate an appropriate depth for a pit from the laser's wavelength
 
Indicator C.1.5
Solve problems on CDs and DVDs related to data storage capacity
 
Indicator C.1.6
Discuss advantages of storage of information in digital v. analogue
 
Indicator C.1.7
Discuss the implications for society of ever-increasing data storage
 

Benchmark C.2
Data Capture; Digital Imaging Using Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs)
 
Indicator C.2.1
Define capacitance
 
Indicator C.2.2
Describe the structure of a charge-coupled device (CCD). (Obj 2)
 
Indicator C.2.3
Explain how incident light causes charge to build up within a pixel
 
Indicator C.2.4
Outline how the image on a CCD is digitized
 
Indicator C.2.5
Define quantum efficiency of a pixel
 
Indicator C.2.6
Define magnification
 
Indicator C.2.7
State the minimum requirements to just resolve an object on a CCD
 
Indicator C.2.8
Discuss the effects of quantum efficiency, etc. on image quality
 
Indicator C.2.9
Describe a range of practical uses of CCD; list advantages over film
 
Indicator C.2.10
Outline how the image stored in a CCD is retrieved
 
Indicator C.2.11
Solve problems involving the use of CCDs
 

Benchmark C.3
Electronics
 
Indicator C.3.1
State the properties of an ideal operational amplifier (op-amp)
 
Indicator C.3.2
Draw circuit diagrams incorporating operational amplifiers
 
Indicator C.3.3
Derive an expression for the gain of amplifiers (inverting and non)
 
Indicator C.3.4
Describe the use of an operational amplifier circuit as a comparator
 
Indicator C.3.5
Describe the use of a Schmitt trigger for the reshaping of pulses
 
Indicator C.3.6
Solve problems involving circuits incorporating operational amplifiers
 

Benchmark C.4
The Mobile Phone System
 
Indicator C.4.1
State that any area is allocated a range of frequencies for its cells
 
Indicator C.4.2
Describe the role of the cellular exchange and PSTN in communications
 
Indicator C.4.3
Discuss the use of mobile phones in multimedia communication
 
Indicator C.4.4
Discuss the moral, ethical, etc. issues arising from mobile phone use
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard D
  RELATIVITY AND PARTICLE PHYSICS
 

Benchmark D.1
Introduction to Relativity
 
Indicator D.1.1
Describe what is meant by a frame of reference
 
Indicator D.1.2
Describe what is meant by a Galilean transformation
 
Indicator D.1.3
Solve problems involving relative velocities
 

Benchmark D.2
Concepts and Postulates of Special Relativity
 
Indicator D.2.1
Describe what is meant by an inertial frame of reference
 
Indicator D.2.2
State the two postulates of the special theory of relativity
 
Indicator D.2.3
Discuss the concept of simultaneity
 

Benchmark D.3
Relativistic Kinematics
 
Indicator D.3.1
Describe the concept of a light clock
 
Indicator D.3.2
Define proper time interval
 
Indicator D.3.3
Derive the time dilation formula
 
Indicator D.3.4
Sketch and annotate a graph showing variation with relative velocity
 
Indicator D.3.5
Solve problems involving time dilation
 
Indicator D.3.6
Define proper length
 
Indicator D.3.7
Describe the phenomenon of length contraction
 
Indicator D.3.8
Solve problems involving length contraction
 

Benchmark D.4
Particles and Interactions
 
Indicator D.4.1
State what is meant by an elementary particle
 
Indicator D.4.2
Identify elementary particles
 
Indicator D.4.3
Describe particles in terms of mass and various quantum numbers
 
Indicator D.4.4
Classify particles according to spin
 
Indicator D.4.5
State what is meant by an antiparticle
 
Indicator D.4.6
State the Pauli exclusion principle
 
Indicator D.4.7
List the fundamental interactions
 
Indicator D.4.8
Describe the fundamental interactions in terms of exchange particles
 
Indicator D.4.9
Discuss the uncertainty principle in the context of particle creation
 
Indicator D.4.10
Describe what is meant by a Feynman diagram
 
Indicator D.4.11
Discuss how a Feynman diagram may be used to calculate probabilities
 
Indicator D.4.12
Describe what is meant by virtual particles
 
Indicator D.4.13
Apply the formula for the range for particle exchange
 
Indicator D.4.14
Describe pair annihilation and pair production using Feynmen diagrams
 
Indicator D.4.15
Predict particle processes using Feynman diagrams
 

Benchmark D.5
Quarks
 
Indicator D.5.1
List the six types of quark
 
Indicator D.5.2
State the content of hadrons
 
Indicator D.5.3
State the quark content of the proton and the neutron
 
Indicator D.5.4
Define baryon number and apply law of conservation of baryon number
 
Indicator D.5.5
Deduce the spin structure of hadrons
 
Indicator D.5.6
Explain the need for colour in forming bound states of quarks
 
Indicator D.5.7
State the colour of quarks and gluons
 
Indicator D.5.8
Outline the concept of strangeness
 
Indicator D.5.9
Discuss quark confinement
 
Indicator D.5.10
Discuss the interaction that binds nucleons
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard E
  ASTROPHYSICS
 

Benchmark E.1
Introduction to the Universe
 
Indicator E.1.1
Outline the general structure of the solar system
 
Indicator E.1.2
Distinguish between a stellar cluster and a constellation
 
Indicator E.1.3
Define the light year
 
Indicator E.1.4
Compare the relative distances between stars
 
Indicator E.1.5
Describe the apparent motion of the stars/constellations
 

Benchmark E.2
Stellar Radiation and Stellar Types
 
Indicator E.2.1
State that fusion is the main energy source of stars
 
Indicator E.2.2
Explain the equilibrium in a stable star
 
Indicator E.2.3
Define the luminosity of a star
 
Indicator E.2.4
Define apparent brightness and state how it is measured
 
Indicator E.2.5
Apply the Stefan-Boltzmann law to compare luminosities
 
Indicator E.2.6
State Wien's law and apply it to the colour and temperature of stars
 
Indicator E.2.7
Explain how atomic spectra may be used to deduce data for stars
 
Indicator E.2.8
Describe the overall classification system of spectral classes
 
Indicator E.2.9
Describe the different types of star
 
Indicator E.2.10
Discuss the characteristics of spectroscopic & eclipsing binary stars
 
Indicator E.2.11
Identify the regions of star types on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
 

Benchmark E.3
Stellar Distances
 
Indicator E.3.1
Define the parsec
 
Indicator E.3.2
Describe the stellar parallax method of finding the distance to a star
 
Indicator E.3.3
Explain why the method of stellar parallax is limited in distance
 
Indicator E.3.4
Solve problems involving stellar parallax
 
Indicator E.3.5
Describe the apparent magnitude scale
 
Indicator E.3.6
Define absolute magnitude
 
Indicator E.3.7
Solve problems involving apparent/absolute magnitude & distance
 
Indicator E.3.8
Solve problems involving apparent brightness and apparent magnitude
 
Indicator E.3.9
State that the luminosity of a star may be estimated from its spectrum
 
Indicator E.3.10
Explain how stellar distance may be determined
 
Indicator E.3.11
State that the method of spectroscopic parallax is limited to < 10 Mpc
 
Indicator E.3.12
Solve problems involving distances, apparent brightness and luminosity
 
Indicator E.3.13
Outline the nature of a Cepheid variable
 
Indicator E.3.14
State the relationship between period and absolute magnitude
 
Indicator E.3.15
Explain how Cepheid variables may be used as "standard candles"
 
Indicator E.3.16
Determine the distance to a Cepheid variable
 

Benchmark E.4
Cosmology
 
Indicator E.4.1
Describe Newton’s model of the universe
 
Indicator E.4.2
Explain Olbers' paradox
 
Indicator E.4.3
Suggest that red-shift of light indicates expansion of the universe
 
Indicator E.4.4
Describe both space and time as originating with the Big Bang
 
Indicator E.4.5
Describe the discovery of CMB radiation by Penzias and Wilson
 
Indicator E.4.6
Explain how cosmic radiation is consistent with the Big Bang model
 
Indicator E.4.7
Suggest how Big Bang model provides a resolution to Olbers' paradox
 
Indicator E.4.8
Distinguish between the terms open, flat and closed
 
Indicator E.4.9
Define the term critical density by reference to a flat model
 
Indicator E.4.10
Discuss how the density of the universe determines its development
 
Indicator E.4.11
Discuss problems with determining the density of the universe
 
Indicator E.4.12
State that current scientific evidence suggests the universe is open
 
Indicator E.4.13
Discuss example of the international nature of astrophysics research
 
Indicator E.4.14
Evaluate arguments related to researching the nature of the universe
 

Benchmark E.5
Stellar Processes and Stellar Evolution (HL)
 
Indicator E.5.1
Describe the conditions that initiate fusion in a star
 
Indicator E.5.2
State the effect of a star’s mass on the end product of nuclear fusion
 
Indicator E.5.3
Outline the changes that take place when a star becomes a red giant
 
Indicator E.5.4
Apply the mass–luminosity relation
 
Indicator E.5.5
Explain how the Chandrasekhar and Oppenheimer-Volkoff limits are used
 
Indicator E.5.6
Compare the fate of a red giant and a red supergiant
 
Indicator E.5.7
Draw evolutionary paths of stars on an HR diagram
 
Indicator E.5.8
Outline the characteristics of pulsars
 

Benchmark E.6
Galaxies and the Expanding Universe (HL)
 
Indicator E.6.1
Describe the distribution of galaxies in the universe
 
Indicator E.6.2
Explain the red-shift of light from distant galaxies
 
Indicator E.6.3
Solve problems involving red-shift and the recession speed of galaxies
 
Indicator E.6.4
State Hubble's law
 
Indicator E.6.5
Discuss the limitations of Hubble's law
 
Indicator E.6.6
Explain how the Hubble constant may be determined
 
Indicator E.6.7
Explain how the Hubble constant is used to estimate the universe's age
 
Indicator E.6.8
Solve problems involving Hubble's law
 
Indicator E.6.9
Explain how the expansion of the universe made atoms, etc. possible
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard F
  COMMUNICATIONS
 

Benchmark F.1
Radio Communication
 
Indicator F.1.1
Describe what is meant by the modulation of a wave
 
Indicator F.1.2
Distinguish between a carrier wave and a signal wave
 
Indicator F.1.3
Describe amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM)
 
Indicator F.1.4
Solve problems based on the modulation of the carrier wave
 
Indicator F.1.5
Sketch and analyse graphs of the power spectrum of a carrier wave
 
Indicator F.1.6
Define what is meant by sideband frequencies and bandwidth
 
Indicator F.1.7
Solve problems involving sideband frequencies and bandwidth
 
Indicator F.1.8
Describe the relative advantages and disadvantages of AM and FM
 
Indicator F.1.9
Describe, by means of a block diagram, an AM radio receiver
 

Benchmark F.2
Digital Signals
 
Indicator F.2.1
Solve problems involving the conversion of binary and decimal numbers
 
Indicator F.2.2
Distinguish between analogue and digital signals
 
Indicator F.2.3
State the advantages of the digital transmission of information
 
Indicator F.2.4
Describe the principles of the transmission and reception
 
Indicator F.2.5
Explain the significance of the number of bits and bit-rate
 
Indicator F.2.6
Describe what is meant by time-division multiplexing
 
Indicator F.2.7
Solve problems involving analogue-to-digital conversion
 
Indicator F.2.8
Describe the consequences of digital communication and multiplexing
 
Indicator F.2.9
Discuss the social, economic and environmental issues of the Internet
 

Benchmark F.3
Optic Fiber Transmission
 
Indicator F.3.1
Explain what is meant by critical angle and total internal reflection
 
Indicator F.3.2
Solve problems involving refractive index and critical angle
 
Indicator F.3.3
Apply the concept of total internal reflection to an optic fibre
 
Indicator F.3.4
Describe the effects of material dispersion and modal dispersion
 
Indicator F.3.5
Explain what is meant by attenuation and solve problems
 
Indicator F.3.6
Describe the variation with wavelength of the attenuation of radiation
 
Indicator F.3.7
State what is meant by noise in an optic fibre
 
Indicator F.3.8
Describe the role of amplifiers and reshapers in optic fibre
 
Indicator F.3.9
Solve problems involving optic fibres
 

Benchmark F.4
Channels of Communication
 
Indicator F.4.1
Outline different channels of communication
 
Indicator F.4.2
Discuss uses & relative advantages of different communication channels
 
Indicator F.4.3
State what is meant by a geostationary satellite
 
Indicator F.4.4
State the order of magnitude of the frequencies used for communication
 
Indicator F.4.5
Discuss the pros & cons of geostationary vs. polar-orbiting satellites
 
Indicator F.4.6
Discuss the social, economic and environmental issues of satellites
 

Benchmark F.5
Electronics (HL)
 
Indicator F.5.1
State the properties of an ideal operational amplifier (op-amp)
 
Indicator F.5.2
Draw circuit diagrams incorporating operational amplifiers
 
Indicator F.5.3
Derive an expression for the gain of amplifiers (inverting and non)
 
Indicator F.5.4
Describe the use of an operational amplifier circuit as a comparator
 
Indicator F.5.5
Describe the use of a Schmitt trigger for the reshaping of pulses
 
Indicator F.5.6
Solve problems involving circuits incorporating operational amplifiers
 

Benchmark F.6
The Mobile Phone System (HL)
 
Indicator F.6.1
State that any area is allocated a range of frequencies for its cells
 
Indicator F.6.2
Describe the role of cellular exchange and the PSTN in communications
 
Indicator F.6.3
Discuss the use of mobile phones in multimedia communication
 
Indicator F.6.4
Discuss the moral, ethical, etc. issues arising from mobile phone use
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard G
  ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
 

Benchmark G.1
The Nature of EM Waves and Light Sources
 
Indicator G.1.1
Outline the nature of electromagnetic (EM) waves
 
Indicator G.1.2
Describe the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum
 
Indicator G.1.3
Describe what is meant by the dispersion of EM waves
 
Indicator G.1.4
Describe the dispersion of EM waves
 
Indicator G.1.5
Distinguish transmission, absorption and scattering of radiation
 
Indicator G.1.6
Discuss examples: transmission, absorption, scattering of EM radiation
 
Indicator G.1.7
Explain the terms monochromatic and coherent
 
Indicator G.1.8
Identify laser light as a source of coherent light
 
Indicator G.1.9
Outline the mechanism for the production of laser light
 
Indicator G.1.10
Outline an application of the use of a laser
 

Benchmark G.2
Optical Instruments
 
Indicator G.2.1
Define terms as applied to a converging (convex) lens
 
Indicator G.2.2
Define the power of a convex lens and the dioptre
 
Indicator G.2.3
Define linear magnification
 
Indicator G.2.4
Construct ray diagrams to locate the image formed by a convex lens
 
Indicator G.2.5
Distinguish between a real image and a virtual image
 
Indicator G.2.6
Apply “real is positive, virtual is negative” to the thin lens formula
 
Indicator G.2.7
Solve problems for a single convex lens using the thin lens formula
 
Indicator G.2.8
Define the terms far point and near point for the unaided eye
 
Indicator G.2.9
Define angular magnification
 
Indicator G.2.10
Derive an expression for the angular magnification
 
Indicator G.2.11
Construct a ray diagram for a compound microscope
 
Indicator G.2.12
Construct a ray diagram for an astronomical telescope
 
Indicator G.2.13
State the equation relating angular magnification to the focal lengths
 
Indicator G.2.14
Solve problems involving the microscope and telescope
 
Indicator G.2.15
Explain the meaning of spherical aberration and chromatic aberration
 
Indicator G.2.16
Describe how spherical aberration in a lens may be reduced
 
Indicator G.2.17
Describe how chromatic aberration in a lens may be reduced
 

Benchmark G.3
Two-Source Interference of Waves
 
Indicator G.3.1
State conditions necessary to observe interference between two sources
 
Indicator G.3.2
Explain, using the principle of superposition, an interference pattern
 
Indicator G.3.3
Outline a double-slit experiment for light and draw the distribution
 
Indicator G.3.4
Solve problems involving two-source interference
 

Benchmark G.4
Diffraction Grating
 
Indicator G.4.1
Describe the effect of increasing the number of slits on distribution
 
Indicator G.4.2
Derive the diffraction grating formula for normal incidence
 
Indicator G.4.3
Outline the use of a diffraction grating to measure wavelengths
 
Indicator G.4.4
Solve problems involving a diffraction grating
 

Benchmark G.5
X-rays (HL)
 
Indicator G.5.1
Outline the experimental arrangement for the production of X-rays
 
Indicator G.5.2
Draw and annotate a typical X-ray spectrum
 
Indicator G.5.3
Explain the origins of the features of a characteristic X-ray spectrum
 
Indicator G.5.4
Solve problems: accelerating potential difference & minimum wavelength
 
Indicator G.5.5
Explain how X-ray diffraction arises
 
Indicator G.5.6
Derive the Bragg scattering equation
 
Indicator G.5.7
Outline how cubic crystals may be used to measure wavelength of X-rays
 
Indicator G.5.8
Outline how X-rays may be used to determine the structure of crystals
 
Indicator G.5.9
Solve problems involving the Bragg equation
 

Benchmark G.6
Thin-Film Interference (HL)
 
Indicator G.6.1
Explain the production of interference fringes by a thin air wedge
 
Indicator G.6.2
Explain how wedge fringes can be used to measure small separations
 
Indicator G.6.3
Describe how thin-film interference is used to test optical flats
 
Indicator G.6.4
Solve problems involving wedge films
 
Indicator G.6.5
State the condition for light to undergo a phase change of pi or none
 
Indicator G.6.6
Describe how a source of light gives rise to an interference pattern
 
Indicator G.6.7
State the conditions for constructive and destructive interference
 
Indicator G.6.8
Explain the formation of colored fringes when white light is reflected
 
Indicator G.6.9
Describe the difference between fringes formed by a parallel vs. wedge
 
Indicator G.6.10
Describe applications of parallel thin films
 
Indicator G.6.11
Solve problems involving parallel films
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard H
  RELATIVITY - HL only
 

Benchmark H.1
Introduction to Relativity (HL)
 
Indicator H.1.1
Describe what is meant by a frame of reference
 
Indicator H.1.2
Describe what is meant by a Galilean transformation
 
Indicator H.1.3
Solve problems involving relative velocities
 

Benchmark H.2
Concepts and Postulates of Special Relativity (HL)
 
Indicator H.2.1
Describe what is meant by an inertial frame of reference
 
Indicator H.2.2
State the two postulates of the special theory of relativity
 
Indicator H.2.3
Discuss the concept of simultaneity
 

Benchmark H.3
Relativistic Kinematics (HL)
 
Indicator H.3.1
Describe the concept of a light clock
 
Indicator H.3.2
Define proper time interval
 
Indicator H.3.3
Derive the time dilation formula
 
Indicator H.3.4
Sketch and annotate a graph showing variation with relative velocity
 
Indicator H.3.5
Solve problems involving time dilation
 
Indicator H.3.6
Define proper length
 
Indicator H.3.7
Describe the phenomenon of length contraction
 
Indicator H.3.8
Solve problems involving length contraction
 

Benchmark H.4
Some Consequences of Special Relativity (HL)
 
Indicator H.4.1
Describe how the concept of time dilation leads to the “twin paradox”
 
Indicator H.4.2
Discuss the Hafele-Keating experiment
 
Indicator H.4.3
Solve one-dimensional problems: relativistic addition of velocities
 
Indicator H.4.4
State the formula representing the equivalence of mass and energy
 
Indicator H.4.5
Define rest mass
 
Indicator H.4.6
Distinguish between the energy of a body at rest and at motion
 
Indicator H.4.7
Explain why no object can ever attain the speed of light in a vacuum
 
Indicator H.4.8
Determine the total energy of an accelerated particle
 

Benchmark H.5
Evidence to Support Special Relativity (HL)
 
Indicator H.5.1
Discuss muon decay as evidence to support special relativity
 
Indicator H.5.2
Solve problems involving the muon decay experiment
 
Indicator H.5.3
Outline the Michelson-Morley experiment
 
Indicator H.5.4
Discuss the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment
 
Indicator H.5.5
Outline an experiment relating speed of light in a vacuum & its source
 

Benchmark H.6
Relativistic Momentum and Energy (HL)
 
Indicator H.6.1
Apply the relation for the relativistic momentum of particles
 
Indicator H.6.2
Apply the formula for the kinetic energy of a particle
 
Indicator H.6.3
Solve problems involving relativistic momentum and energy
 

Benchmark H.7
General Relativity (HL)
 
Indicator H.7.1
Explain the difference between gravitational and inertial mass
 
Indicator H.7.2
Describe and discuss Einstein's principle of equivalence
 
Indicator H.7.3
Deduce a prediction about light rays in a gravitational field
 
Indicator H.7.4
Deduce a prediction about the speed of time near a massive body
 
Indicator H.7.5
Describe the concept of spacetime
 
Indicator H.7.6
State that moving objects follow the shortest path in spacetime
 
Indicator H.7.7
Explain gravitational attraction in terms of warping of spacetime
 
Indicator H.7.8
Describe black holes
 
Indicator H.7.9
Define the term Schwarzschild radius
 
Indicator H.7.10
Calculate the Schwarzschild radius
 
Indicator H.7.11
Solve problems involving time dilation close to a black hole
 
Indicator H.7.12
Describe the concept of gravitational red-shift
 
Indicator H.7.13
Solve problems involving frequency shifts
 
Indicator H.7.14
Solve problems using the gravitational time dilation formula
 

Benchmark H.8
Evidence to Support General Relativity (HL)
 
Indicator H.8.1
Outline an experiment for the bending of EM waves by a massive object
 
Indicator H.8.2
Describe gravitational lensing
 
Indicator H.8.3
Outline experiment that provides evidence for gravitational red-shift
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard I
  MEDICAL PHYSICS - HL only
 

Benchmark I.1
The Ear and Hearing (HL)
 
Indicator I.1.1
Describe the basic structure of the human ear
 
Indicator I.1.2
Explain how sound pressure variations are changed in cochlear fluid
 
Indicator I.1.3
State the range of audible frequencies experienced in normal hearing
 
Indicator I.1.4
Explain how a change in observed loudness is a response to intensity
 
Indicator I.1.5
Explain that there is a logarithmic response of the ear to intensity
 
Indicator I.1.6
Define intensity and also intensity level (IL)
 
Indicator I.1.7
State the intensity level at which discomfort is experienced
 
Indicator I.1.8
Solve problems involving intensity levels
 
Indicator I.1.9
Describe the effects on hearing of short & long-term exposure to noise
 
Indicator I.1.10
Analyze graphs of IL vs. logarithm of frequency for hearing levels
 

Benchmark I.2
Medical Imaging (HL)
 
Indicator I.2.1
Define the terms attenuation coefficient and half-value thickness
 
Indicator I.2.2
Derive the relation of attenuation coefficient & half-value thickness
 
Indicator I.2.3
Solve problems using the equation for X-ray attenuation
 
Indicator I.2.4
Describe X-ray detection, recording and display techniques
 
Indicator I.2.5
Explain standard X-ray imaging techniques used in medicine
 
Indicator I.2.6
Outline the principles of computed tomography (CT)
 
Indicator I.2.7
Describe the generation and detection of ultrasound using crystals
 
Indicator I.2.8
Define acoustic impedance
 
Indicator I.2.9
Solve problems involving acoustic impedance
 
Indicator I.2.10
Outline the differences between A-scans and B-scans
 
Indicator I.2.11
Identify factors that affect the choice of diagnostic frequency
 
Indicator I.2.12
Outline the basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
 
Indicator I.2.13
Describe examples of the use of lasers in clinical diagnosis & therapy
 

Benchmark I.3
Radiation in Medicine (HL)
 
Indicator I.3.1
State the meanings of terms used in radiation dosimetry
 
Indicator I.3.2
Discuss the precautions taken in situations involving radiation
 
Indicator I.3.3
Discuss the concept of balanced risk
 
Indicator I.3.4
Distinguish between physical, biological and effective half-lives
 
Indicator I.3.5
Solve problems involving radiation dosimetry
 
Indicator I.3.6
Outline the basis of radiation therapy for cancer
 
Indicator I.3.7
Solve problems involving the choice of the most suitable radio-isotope
 
Indicator I.3.8
Solve problems involving particular diagnostic applications
 
SCI.IBPH
Standard J
  PARTICLE PHYSICS - HL only
 

Benchmark J.1
Particles and Interactions (HL)
 
Indicator J.1.1
State what is meant by an elementary particle
 
Indicator J.1.2
Identify elementary particles
 
Indicator J.1.3
Describe particles in terms of mass and various quantum numbers
 
Indicator J.1.4
Classify particles according to spin
 
Indicator J.1.5
State what is meant by an antiparticle
 
Indicator J.1.6
State the Pauli exclusion principle
 
Indicator J.1.7
List the fundamental interactions
 
Indicator J.1.8
Describe the fundamental interactions in terms of exchange particles
 
Indicator J.1.9
Discuss the uncertainty principle in the context of particle creation
 
Indicator J.1.10
Describe what is meant by a Feynman diagram
 
Indicator J.1.11
Discuss how a Feynman diagram may be used to calculate probabilities
 
Indicator J.1.12
Describe what is meant by virtual particles
 
Indicator J.1.13
Apply the formula the range for particle exchange
 
Indicator J.1.14
Describe pair annihilation and pair production using Feynman diagrams
 
Indicator J.1.15
Predict particle processes using Feynman diagrams
 

Benchmark J.2
Particle Accelerators and Detectors (HL)
 
Indicator J.2.1
Explain the need for high energies to produce particles of large mass
 
Indicator J.2.2
Explain the need for high energies to resolve particles of small size
 
Indicator J.2.3
Outline structure & operation of a linear accelerator and a cyclotron
 
Indicator J.2.4
Outline the structure and explain the operation of a synchrotron
 
Indicator J.2.5
State what is meant by bremsstrahlung (braking) radiation
 
Indicator J.2.6
Compare pros & cons of linear accelerators, cyclotrons, synchrotrons
 
Indicator J.2.7
Solve problems related to the production of particles in accelerators
 
Indicator J.2.8
Outline operation of bubble chamber, photomultiplier, wire chamber
 
Indicator J.2.9
Outline international aspects of high-energy particle physics research
 
Indicator J.2.10
Discuss the implications of high-energy particle physics research
 

Benchmark J.3
Quarks (HL)
 
Indicator J.3.1
List the six types of quark
 
Indicator J.3.2
State the content of hadrons
 
Indicator J.3.3
State the quark content of the proton and the neutron
 
Indicator J.3.4
Define baryon number and apply law of conservation of baryon number
 
Indicator J.3.5
Deduce the spin structure of hadrons
 
Indicator J.3.6
Explain the need for colour in forming bound states of quarks
 
Indicator J.3.7
State the colour of quarks and gluons
 
Indicator J.3.8
Outline the concept of strangeness
 
Indicator J.3.9
Discuss quark confinement
 
Indicator J.3.10
Discuss the interaction that binds nucleons
 

Benchmark J.4
Leptons and the Standard Model (HL)
 
Indicator J.4.1
State the 3-family structure of quarks & leptons in the standard model
 
Indicator J.4.2
State the lepton number of the leptons in each family
 
Indicator J.4.3
Solve problems involving conservation laws in particle reactions
 
Indicator J.4.4
Evaluate the significance of the Higgs particle (boson)
 

Benchmark J.5
Experimental Evidence for the Quark and Standard Models (HL)
 
Indicator J.5.1
State what is meant by deep inelastic scattering
 
Indicator J.5.2
Analyse the results of deep inelastic scattering experiments
 
Indicator J.5.3
Describe what is meant by asymptotic freedom
 
Indicator J.5.4
Describe what is meant by neutral current
 
Indicator J.5.5
Describe how the neutral current is evidence for the standard model
 

Benchmark J.6
Cosmology and Strings (HL)
 
Indicator J.6.1
State the temperature change of the universe since the Big Bang
 
Indicator J.6.2
Solve problems involving particle interactions in the early universe
 
Indicator J.6.3
State relationship of particles & antiparticles in the early universe
 
Indicator J.6.4
Suggest a mechanism for the predominance of matter over antimatter
 
Indicator J.6.5
Describe qualitatively the theory of strings


Essential - Standard, benchmark, or indicator from the VDOE Standards of Learning document. In the absence of VDOE standards for a given course, content subject to testing such as AP and IB can be labeled Essential.
Expected - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies to provide a context, a bridge, or an enhancement to the Essential SBIs.
Extended - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies generally used to differentiate instruction for advanced learners (Honors/GT)