﻿ FCPS Program of Studies
Science Curriculum
IB Physics

The Diploma Programme physics course includes the essential principles of the subject but also, through selection of options, allows teachers some flexibility to tailor the course to meet the needs of their students. The course is available at both standard level (SL) and higher level (HL), and therefore accommodates students who wish to study science in higher education and those who do not.

Last Updated: 06/15/10 09:53 AM

SCI.IBPH
Standard 1
PHYSICS AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENT

Benchmark 1.1
The Realm of Physics

 Indicator 1.1.1 State and compare quantities to the nearest order of magnitude

 Indicator 1.1.2 State ranges of distances, masses and times that occur in the universe

 Indicator 1.1.3 State ratios of quantities as differences of orders of magnitude

 Indicator 1.1.4 Estimate approximate values of everyday quantities

Benchmark 1.2
Measurement and Uncertainties

 Indicator 1.2.1 State the fundamental Units of the SI system

 Indicator 1.2.2 Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples

 Indicator 1.2.3 Convert between different units of quantities

 Indicator 1.2.4 State units in the accepted SI format

 Indicator 1.2.5 State values in scientific notation and use appropriate prefixes

 Indicator 1.2.6 Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors

 Indicator 1.2.7 Distinguish between precision and accuracy

 Indicator 1.2.8 Explain how the effects of random errors may be reduced

 Indicator 1.2.9 Calculate quantities to the appropriate number of significant figures

 Indicator 1.2.10 State uncertainties as absolute, fractional, and percentages

 Indicator 1.2.11 Determine the uncertainties in results

 Indicator 1.2.12 Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs

 Indicator 1.2.13 State random uncertainty as a range and graphically as an error bar

 Indicator 1.2.14 Determine the uncertainties of a straight line graph

Benchmark 1.3
Vectors and Scalars

 Indicator 1.3.1 Distinguish between vector & scalar quantities; give examples of each

 Indicator 1.3.2 Determine the sum or difference of two vectors by a graphical method

 Indicator 1.3.3 Resolve vectors into perpendicular components along chosen axes

SCI.IBPH
Standard 2
MECHANICS

Benchmark 2.1
Kinematics

 Indicator 2.1.1 Define displacement, velocity, speed and acceleration

 Indicator 2.1.2 Explain the difference between instantaneous and average values

 Indicator 2.1.3 Outline the conditions in which uniformly accelerated motion may apply

 Indicator 2.1.4 Identify the acceleration of a body falling in a vacuum near the Earth

 Indicator 2.1.5 Solve problems involving the equations of uniformly accelerated motion

 Indicator 2.1.6 Describe the effects of air resistance on falling objects.

 Indicator 2.1.7 Draw distance-, displacement-, velocity- & acceleration-time graphs

 Indicator 2.1.8 Calculate and interpret the gradients of displacement-time graphs

 Indicator 2.1.9 Determine relative velocity in one and in two dimensions

Benchmark 2.2
Forces and Dynamics

 Indicator 2.2.1 Calculate the weight of a body using the expression W = mg

 Indicator 2.2.2 Identify the forces acting on an object and draw free-body diagrams

 Indicator 2.2.3 Determine the resultant force in different situations

 Indicator 2.2.4 State Newton’s first law of motion

 Indicator 2.2.5 Describe examples of Newton’s first law

 Indicator 2.2.6 State the condition for translational equilibrium

 Indicator 2.2.7 Solve problems involving translational equilibrium

 Indicator 2.2.8 State Newton’s second law of motion

 Indicator 2.2.9 Solve problems involving Newton’s second law

 Indicator 2.2.10 Define linear momentum and impulse

 Indicator 2.2.11 Determine impulse of time-varying force by studying force-time graph

 Indicator 2.2.12 State the law of conservation of linear momentum

 Indicator 2.2.13 Solve problems involving momentum and impulse

 Indicator 2.2.14 State Newton's third law of motion

 Indicator 2.2.15 Discuss examples of Newton’s third law

Benchmark 2.3
Work, Energy and Power

 Indicator 2.3.1 Outline what is meant by work

 Indicator 2.3.2 Determine the work done by interpreting a force-displacement graph

 Indicator 2.3.3 Solve problems involving the work done by a force

 Indicator 2.3.4 Outline what is meant by kinetic energy

 Indicator 2.3.5 Outline what is meant by change in gravitational potential energy

 Indicator 2.3.6 State the principle of conservation of energy

 Indicator 2.3.7 List different forms of energy; describe examples of transformation

 Indicator 2.3.8 Distinguish between elastic and inelastic collisions

 Indicator 2.3.9 Define power

 Indicator 2.3.10 Define and apply the concept of efficiency

 Indicator 2.3.11 Solve problems involving momentum, work, energy and power

Benchmark 2.4
Uniform Circular Motion

 Indicator 2.4.1 Draw a vector diagram to illustrate the direction of the acceleration

 Indicator 2.4.2 Apply the expression for centripetal acceleration

 Indicator 2.4.3 Identify the force producing circular motion in various situations

 Indicator 2.4.4 Solve problems involving circular motion

SCI.IBPH
Standard 3
THERMAL PHYSICS

Benchmark 3.1
Thermal Concepts

 Indicator 3.1.1 State how temperature determines the direction of energy transfer

 Indicator 3.1.2 State the relation between the Kelvin & Celsius scales of temperature

 Indicator 3.1.3 State the internal energy of a substance

 Indicator 3.1.4 Explain & distinguish between temperature, internal energy and heat

 Indicator 3.1.5 Define the mole and molar mass

 Indicator 3.1.6 Define the Avogadro constant

Benchmark 3.2
Thermal Properties of Matter

 Indicator 3.2.1 Define specific heat capacity and thermal capacity

 Indicator 3.2.2 Solve problems involving specific heat capacities & thermal capacities

 Indicator 3.2.3 Explain the physical differences between solid, liquid, gaseous phases

 Indicator 3.2.4 Describe the process of phase changes in terms of molecular behaviour

 Indicator 3.2.5 Explain why temperature does not change during a phase change

 Indicator 3.2.6 Distinguish between evaporation and boiling

 Indicator 3.2.7 Define specific latent heat

 Indicator 3.2.8 Solve problems involving specific latent heats

 Indicator 3.2.9 Define pressure

 Indicator 3.2.10 State the assumptions of the kinetic model of an ideal gas

 Indicator 3.2.11 State that temperature is a measure of average random kinetic energy

 Indicator 3.2.12 Explain the macroscopic behaviour of an ideal gas in molecular terms

SCI.IBPH
Standard 4
OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES

Benchmark 4.1
Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

 Indicator 4.1.1 Describe examples of oscillations

 Indicator 4.1.2 Define displacement, amplitude, frequency, period, phase difference

 Indicator 4.1.3 Define simple harmonic motion and state the defining equation

 Indicator 4.1.4 Solve problems using the defining equations for SHM

 Indicator 4.1.5 Apply equations as solutions to the defining equation for SHM

 Indicator 4.1.6 Solve problems for acceleration, velocity and displacement during SHM

Benchmark 4.2
Energy Changes During Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

 Indicator 4.2.1 Describe the interchange between kinetic & potential energy during SHM

 Indicator 4.2.2 Apply expressions for kinetic, total, and potential energy in SHM

 Indicator 4.2.3 Solve problems involving energy changes during SHM

Benchmark 4.3
Forced Oscillations and Resonance

 Indicator 4.3.1 State what is meant by damping

 Indicator 4.3.2 Describe examples of damped oscillations

 Indicator 4.3.3 Explain natural frequency of vibration and forced oscillations

 Indicator 4.3.4 Describe graphically the variation of the amplitude of vibration

 Indicator 4.3.5 State what is meant by resonance

 Indicator 4.3.6 Describe examples of resonance and where it is useful or not

Benchmark 4.4
Wave Characteristics

 Indicator 4.4.1 Describe a wave pulse and a continuous progressive wave

 Indicator 4.4.2 State that progressive waves transfer energy

 Indicator 4.4.3 Describe and give examples of transverse and of longitudinal waves

 Indicator 4.4.4 Describe waves in two dimensions

 Indicator 4.4.5 Describe the terms crest, trough, compression and rarefaction

 Indicator 4.4.6 Define displacement, amplitude, frequency, period, wavelength, etc.

 Indicator 4.4.7 Draw & explain displacement-time and displacement-position graphs

 Indicator 4.4.8 Derive & apply the relationship between wave speed, wavelength, etc.

 Indicator 4.4.9 State how all EM waves travel in free space; recall EM wavelengths

Benchmark 4.5
Wave Properties

 Indicator 4.5.1 Describe reflection and transmission of waves at a boundary

 Indicator 4.5.2 State and apply Snell's law

 Indicator 4.5.3 Explain and discuss the diffraction of waves at apertures & obstacles

 Indicator 4.5.4 Describe examples of diffraction

 Indicator 4.5.5 State the principle of superposition; explain types of interference

 Indicator 4.5.6 State conditions for interference in terms of path & phase differences

 Indicator 4.5.7 Apply principle of superposition to determine the result of two waves

SCI.IBPH
Standard 5
ELECTRIC CURRENTS

Benchmark 5.1
Electric Potential Difference, Current and Resistance

 Indicator 5.1.1 Define electric potential difference

 Indicator 5.1.2 Determine change in potential energy when a charge moves between 2 pts

 Indicator 5.1.3 Define the electronvolt

 Indicator 5.1.4 Solve problems involving electric potential difference

 Indicator 5.1.5 Define electric current

 Indicator 5.1.6 Define resistance

 Indicator 5.1.7 Apply the equation for resistance

 Indicator 5.1.8 State Ohm’s law

 Indicator 5.1.9 Compare ohmic and non-ohmic behaviour

 Indicator 5.1.10 Derive expressions for electrical power dissipation in resistors

 Indicator 5.1.11 Solve problems involving potential difference, current and resistance

Benchmark 5.2
Electric Circuits

 Indicator 5.2.1 Define electromotive force (emf)

 Indicator 5.2.2 Describe the concept of internal resistance

 Indicator 5.2.3 Apply the equations for resistors in series and in parallel

 Indicator 5.2.4 Draw circuit diagrams

 Indicator 5.2.5 Describe the use of ideal ammeters and ideal voltmeters

 Indicator 5.2.6 Describe a potential divider

 Indicator 5.2.7 Explain the use of sensors in potential divider circuits

 Indicator 5.2.8 Solve problems involving electric circuits

SCI.IBPH
Standard 6
FIELDS AND FORCES

Benchmark 6.1
Gravitational Force and Field

 Indicator 6.1.1 State Newton’s universal law of gravitation

 Indicator 6.1.2 Define gravitational field strength

 Indicator 6.1.3 Determine the gravitational field due to one or more point masses

 Indicator 6.1.4 Derive an expression for gravitational field strength

 Indicator 6.1.5 Solve problems involving gravitational forces and fields

Benchmark 6.2
Electric Force and Field

 Indicator 6.2.1 State that there are two types of electric charge

 Indicator 6.2.2 State and apply the law of conservation of charge

 Indicator 6.2.3 Explain the difference in electrical properties: conductors,insulators

 Indicator 6.2.4 State Coulomb’s law

 Indicator 6.2.5 Define electric field strength

 Indicator 6.2.6 Determine the electric field strength due to one or more point charges

 Indicator 6.2.7 Draw the electric field patterns for different charge configurations

 Indicator 6.2.8 Solve problems involving electric charges, forces and fields

Benchmark 6.3
Magnetic Force and Field

 Indicator 6.3.1 State that moving charges give rise to magnetic fields

 Indicator 6.3.2 Draw magnetic field patterns due to currents

 Indicator 6.3.3 Determine direction of the force on a conductor in a magnetic field

 Indicator 6.3.4 Determine direction of the force on a charge moving in magnetic field

 Indicator 6.3.5 Define the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field

 Indicator 6.3.6 Solve problems involving magnetic forces, fields and currents

SCI.IBPH
Standard 7
ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Benchmark 7.1
The Atom

 Indicator 7.1.1 Describe a model of the atom: small nucleus surrounded by electrons

 Indicator 7.1.2 Outline the evidence that supports a nuclear model of the atom

 Indicator 7.1.3 Outline one limitation of the simple model of the nuclear atom

 Indicator 7.1.4 Outline evidence for the existence of atomic energy levels

 Indicator 7.1.5 Explain the terms nuclide, isotope and nucleon

 Indicator 7.1.6 Define nucleon number A, proton number Z and neutron number N

 Indicator 7.1.7 Describe the interactions of the nucleus

Benchmark 7.2

 Indicator 7.2.1 Describe the phenomenon of natural radioactive decay

 Indicator 7.2.2 Describe the properties of alpha & beta particles and gamma radiation

 Indicator 7.2.3 Describe ionizing properties: alpha & beta particles & gamma radiation

 Indicator 7.2.4 Outline the biological effects of ionizing radiation

 Indicator 7.2.5 Explain why some nuclei are stable while others are unstable

 Indicator 7.2.6 State that radioactive decay is random & spontaneous and discuss rate

 Indicator 7.2.7 Define the term radioactive half-life

 Indicator 7.2.8 Determine the half-life of a nuclide from decay curve

 Indicator 7.2.9 Solve radioactive decay problems with integral numbers of half-lives

Benchmark 7.3
Nuclear Reactions, Fission and Fusion

 Indicator 7.3.1 Describe and give an example of an artificial (induced) transmutation

 Indicator 7.3.2 Construct and complete nuclear equations

 Indicator 7.3.3 Define the term unified atomic mass unit

 Indicator 7.3.4 Apply Einstein mass-energy equivalence relationship

 Indicator 7.3.5 Define mass defect, binding energy, and binding energy per nucleon

 Indicator 7.3.6 Draw a graph of the variation of nucleon number with binding energy

 Indicator 7.3.7 Solve problems involving mass defect and binding energy

 Indicator 7.3.8 Describe the processes of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion

 Indicator 7.3.9 Apply the graph in 7.3.6 to account for energy release

 Indicator 7.3.10 State that nuclear fusion is the main source of the Sun’s energy

 Indicator 7.3.11 Solve problems involving fission and fusion reactions

SCI.IBPH
Standard 8
ENERGY, POWER AND CLIMATE CHANGE

Benchmark 8.1

 Indicator 8.1.1 State that thermal energy may be converted to work

 Indicator 8.1.2 Explain what is meant by degraded energy

 Indicator 8.1.3 Construct Sankey diagrams and identify where the energy is degraded

 Indicator 8.1.4 Outline the mechanisms involved in the production of electrical power

Benchmark 8.2
World Energy Sources

 Indicator 8.2.1 Identify different world energy sources

 Indicator 8.2.2 Distinguish between renewable and non-renewable energy sources

 Indicator 8.2.3 Define the energy density of a fuel

 Indicator 8.2.4 Discuss how choice of fuel is influenced by its energy density

 Indicator 8.2.5 State the relative proportions of world use of energy sources

Benchmark 8.3
Fossil Fuel Power Production

 Indicator 8.3.1 Outline historical/geographical reasons for widespread fossil fuel use

 Indicator 8.3.2 Discuss the energy density of fossil fuels & demands of power stations

 Indicator 8.3.4 State the overall efficiency of power stations fuelled by fossil fuels

 Indicator 8.3.5 Describe the environmental problems with recovery of fossil fuels

Benchmark 8.4
Non-Fossil Fuel Power Production

 Indicator 8.4.1 Explain how neutrons produced in fission may initiate a chain reaction

 Indicator 8.4.2 Compare controlled nuclear fission and uncontrolled nuclear fission

 Indicator 8.4.3 Describe what is meant by fuel enrichment

 Indicator 8.4.4 Describe the main energy transformations in a nuclear power station

 Indicator 8.4.5 Discuss the role of the moderator & control rods in controlled fission

 Indicator 8.4.6 Discuss the role of the heat exchanger in a fission reactor

 Indicator 8.4.7 Describe the production of plutonium-239 by uranium-239

 Indicator 8.4.8 Describe the importance of plutonium-239 as a nuclear fuel

 Indicator 8.4.9 Discuss safety issues & risks associated with nuclear power

 Indicator 8.4.10 Outline the problems with producing nuclear power using nuclear fusion

 Indicator 8.4.11 Solve problems on the production of nuclear power

 Indicator 8.4.12 Distinguish between a photovoltaic cell and a solar heating panel

 Indicator 8.4.13 Outline reasons for seasonal and regional variations in solar power

 Indicator 8.4.14 Solve problems involving photovoltaic cells and solar heating panels

 Indicator 8.4.15 Distinguish between different hydroelectric schemes

 Indicator 8.4.16 Describe the main energy transformations in hydroelectric schemes

 Indicator 8.4.17 Solve problems involving hydroelectric schemes

 Indicator 8.4.18 Outline the basic features of a wind generator

 Indicator 8.4.19 Determine the power that may be delivered by a wind generator

 Indicator 8.4.20 Solve problems involving wind power

 Indicator 8.4.21 Describe the operation of an OWC ocean-wave energy converter

 Indicator 8.4.22 Determine the power per unit length of a wavefront

 Indicator 8.4.23 Solve problems involving wave power

Benchmark 8.5
Greenhouse Effect

 Indicator 8.5.1 Calculate the intensity of the Sun’s radiation incident on the planet

 Indicator 8.5.2 Define albedo

 Indicator 8.5.3 State factors that determine a planet's albedo

 Indicator 8.5.4 Describe the greenhouse effect

 Indicator 8.5.5 Identify the main greenhouse gases and their sources

 Indicator 8.5.6 Explain the molecular mechanisms by which greenhouse gases absorb IR

 Indicator 8.5.7 Analyse absorption graphs to compare the effects of different gases

 Indicator 8.5.8 Outline the nature of black-body radiation

 Indicator 8.5.9 Draw a graph of the emission spectra of black bodies

 Indicator 8.5.10 State the Stefan-Boltzmann law; apply it to compare emission rates

 Indicator 8.5.11 Apply the concept of emissivity to compare emission rates

 Indicator 8.5.12 Define surface heat capacity

 Indicator 8.5.13 Solve greenhouse effect & planet heating problems with a climate model

Benchmark 8.6
Global Warming

 Indicator 8.6.1 Describe some possible models of global warming

 Indicator 8.6.2 State what is meant by the enhanced greenhouse effect

 Indicator 8.6.3 Identify the likely major cause of the enhanced greenhouse effect

 Indicator 8.6.4 Describe evidence linking global warming to increased greenhouse gases

 Indicator 8.6.5 Outline some mechanisms that may increase the rate of global warming

 Indicator 8.6.6 Define coefficient of volume expansion

 Indicator 8.6.7 State that possible effect is a rise in mean sea-level

 Indicator 8.6.8 Outline possible reasons for a predicted rise in mean sea-level

 Indicator 8.6.9 Identify climate change as an outcome of the greenhouse effect

 Indicator 8.6.10 Solve problems related to the enhanced greenhouse effect

 Indicator 8.6.11 Identify possible solutions to reduce the enhanced greenhouse effect

 Indicator 8.6.12 Discuss international efforts to reduce the enhanced greenhouse effect

SCI.IBPH
Standard 9
MOTION IN FIELDS

Benchmark 9.1
Projectile Motion

 Indicator 9.1.1 State independence of the vertical & horizontal components of velocity

 Indicator 9.1.2 Describe and sketch the trajectory of projectile motion as parabolic

 Indicator 9.1.3 Describe the effect of air resistance on trajectory of a projectile

 Indicator 9.1.4 Solve problems on projectile motion

Benchmark 9.2
Gravitational Field, Potential and Energy

 Indicator 9.2.1 Define gravitational potential and gravitational potential energy

 Indicator 9.2.2 Apply the expression for gravitational potential due to a point mass

 Indicator 9.2.3 Apply the formula relating field strength to potential gradient

 Indicator 9.2.4 Determine the potential due to one or more point masses

 Indicator 9.2.5 Describe the pattern of equipotential surfaces due to point masses

 Indicator 9.2.6 Relate equipotential surfaces and gravitational field lines

 Indicator 9.2.7 Explain the concept of escape speed from a planet

 Indicator 9.2.8 Derive an expression for the escape speed of an object from a planet

 Indicator 9.2.9 Solve gravitational potential energy/gravitational potential problems

Benchmark 9.3
Electric Field, Potential and Energy

 Indicator 9.3.1 Define electric potential and electric potential energy

 Indicator 9.3.2 State & apply expression for electric potential due to a point charge

 Indicator 9.3.3 Apply formula relating electric field strength to potential gradient

 Indicator 9.3.4 Determine the potential due to one or more point charges

 Indicator 9.3.5 Describe the pattern of equipotential surfaces due to point charges

 Indicator 9.3.6 State the relation between equipotential surfaces and electric field

 Indicator 9.3.7 Solve problems involving electric potential energy and potential

Benchmark 9.4
Orbital Motion

 Indicator 9.4.1 State that gravitation provides the centripetal force for orbits

 Indicator 9.4.2 Derive Kepler's third law

 Indicator 9.4.3 Derive expressions for the types of energy of an orbiting satellite

 Indicator 9.4.4 Sketch graphs showing the variation with orbital radius and energies

 Indicator 9.4.5 Discuss “weightlessness” in orbital motion, free fall, and deep space

 Indicator 9.4.6 Solve problems involving orbital motion

SCI.IBPH
Standard 10
THERMAL PHYSICS

Benchmark 10.1
Thermodynamics

 Indicator 10.1.1 State the equation of state for an ideal gas

 Indicator 10.1.2 Describe the difference between an ideal gas and a real gas

 Indicator 10.1.3 Describe the concept of absolute zero and the Kelvin scale

 Indicator 10.1.4 Solve problems using the equation of state of an ideal gas

Benchmark 10.2
Processes

 Indicator 10.2.1 Deduce an expression for the work involved in a volume change of a gas

 Indicator 10.2.2 State the first law of thermodynamics

 Indicator 10.2.3 Identify the first law of thermodynamics

 Indicator 10.2.4 Describe a variety of changes of state of an ideal gas

 Indicator 10.2.5 Annotate the thermodynamic processes & cycles on P-V diagrams

 Indicator 10.2.6 Calculate from a P-V diagram the work done in a thermodynamic cycle

 Indicator 10.2.7 Solve problems involving state changes of a gas

Benchmark 10.3
Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy

 Indicator 10.3.1 State the second law of thermodynamics

 Indicator 10.3.2 State that entropy expresses the degree of disorder in the system

 Indicator 10.3.3 State the second law of thermodynamics in terms of entropy changes

 Indicator 10.3.4 Discuss examples of natural processes in terms of entropy changes

SCI.IBPH
Standard 11
WAVE PHENOMENA

Benchmark 11.1
Standing (Stationary) Waves

 Indicator 11.1.1 Describe the nature of standing (stationary) waves

 Indicator 11.1.2 Explain the formation of one-dimensional standing waves

 Indicator 11.1.3 Discuss modes of vibration of strings & air in open & in closed pipes

 Indicator 11.1.4 Compare standing waves and travelling waves

 Indicator 11.1.5 Solve problems involving standing waves

Benchmark 11.2
Doppler Effect

 Indicator 11.2.1 Describe what is meant by the Doppler effect

 Indicator 11.2.2 Explain the Doppler effect by reference to wavefront diagrams

 Indicator 11.2.3 Apply the Doppler effect equations for sound

 Indicator 11.2.4 Solve problems on the Doppler effect for sound

 Indicator 11.2.5 Solve problems on the Doppler effect for electromagnetic waves

 Indicator 11.2.6 Outline an example in which Doppler effect is used to measure speed

Benchmark 11.3
Diffraction

 Indicator 11.3.1 Sketch the variation of the relative intensity of light

 Indicator 11.3.2 Derive the formula for the position of the first minimum

 Indicator 11.3.3 Solve problems involving single-slit diffraction

Benchmark 11.4
Resolution

 Indicator 11.4.1 Sketch the variation of the relative intensity of light

 Indicator 11.4.2 State the Rayleigh criterion for images of two sources to be resolved

 Indicator 11.4.3 Describe the significance of resolution in development of devices

 Indicator 11.4.4 Solve problems involving resolution

Benchmark 11.5
Polarization

 Indicator 11.5.1 Describe what is meant by polarized light

 Indicator 11.5.2 Describe polarization by reflection

 Indicator 11.5.3 State and apply Brewster's law

 Indicator 11.5.4 Explain the terms polarizer and analyser

 Indicator 11.5.5 Calculate the intensity of a beam of light using Malus' law

 Indicator 11.5.6 Describe what is meant by an optically active substance

 Indicator 11.5.7 Describe the use of polarization to determine solution concentration

 Indicator 11.5.8 Outline qualitatively how polarization may be used in stress analysis

 Indicator 11.5.9 Outline qualitatively the action of liquid-crystal displays (LCDs)

 Indicator 11.5.10 Solve problems involving the polarization of light

SCI.IBPH
Standard 12
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

Benchmark 12.1
Induced Electromotive Force (emf)

 Indicator 12.1.1 Describe the inducing of an emf by motion between a conductor & field

 Indicator 12.1.2 Derive the formula for the emf induced in a straight conductor

 Indicator 12.1.3 Define magnetic flux and magnetic flux linkage

 Indicator 12.1.4 Describe the production of an induced emf by a time-changing flux

 Indicator 12.1.5 State Faraday's law and Lenz's law

 Indicator 12.1.6 Solve electromagnetic induction problems

Benchmark 12.2
Alternating Current

 Indicator 12.2.1 Describe the emf induced in a coil rotating within a uniform field

 Indicator 12.2.2 Explain the operation of a basic alternating current (ac) generator

 Indicator 12.2.3 Describe the effect on the induced emf of changing generator frequency

 Indicator 12.2.4 Discuss what is meant by the root mean squared of an ac or voltage

 Indicator 12.2.5 State the relation between peak & rms values for currents and voltages

 Indicator 12.2.6 Solve problems using peak and rms values

 Indicator 12.2.7 Solve ac circuit problems for ohmic resistors

 Indicator 12.2.8 Describe the operation of an ideal transformer

Benchmark 12.3
Transmission of Electrical Power

 Indicator 12.3.1 Outline reasons for power losses in transmission lines & transformers

 Indicator 12.3.2 Explain the use of high-voltage step-up and step-down transformers

 Indicator 12.3.3 Solve problems on operation of real transformers & power transmission

 Indicator 12.3.4 Suggest how extra-low-frequency EM fields induce currents in body

 Indicator 12.3.5 Discuss possible risks involved in living and working near power lines

SCI.IBPH
Standard 13
QUANTUM PHYSICS AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Benchmark 13.1
Quantum Physics

 Indicator 13.1.1 Describe the photoelectric effect

 Indicator 13.1.2 Describe concept of the photon; use it to explain photoelectric effect

 Indicator 13.1.3 Describe and explain an experiment to test the Einstein model

 Indicator 13.1.4 Solve problems involving the photoelectric effect

 Indicator 13.1.5 Describe the de Broglie hypothesis and the concept of matter waves

 Indicator 13.1.6 Outline an experiment to verify the de Broglie hypothesis

 Indicator 13.1.7 Solve problems involving matter waves

 Indicator 13.1.8 Outline a procedure for producing and observing atomic spectra

 Indicator 13.1.9 Explain how atomic spectra provide evidence for quantization of energy

 Indicator 13.1.10 Calculate wavelengths of spectral lines for energy level differences

 Indicator 13.1.11 Explain the origin of atomic energy levels using "electron in a box"

 Indicator 13.1.12 Outline the Schrödinger model of the hydrogen atom

 Indicator 13.1.13 Outline the Heisenberg uncertainty principle

Benchmark 13.2
Nuclear Physics

 Indicator 13.2.1 Explain how the radii of nuclei may be estimated

 Indicator 13.2.2 Describe how the masses of nuclei may be determined

 Indicator 13.2.3 Describe one piece of evidence for existence of nuclear energy levels

 Indicator 13.2.4 Describe beta decay, including the existence of the neutrino

 Indicator 13.2.5 State the radioactive decay law as an exponential function

 Indicator 13.2.6 Derive the relationship between decay constant and half-life

 Indicator 13.2.7 Outline methods for measuring the half-life of an isotope

 Indicator 13.2.8 Solve problems involving radioactive half-life

SCI.IBPH
Standard 14
DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY

Benchmark 14.1
Analogue and Digital Signals

 Indicator 14.1.1 Solve conversion problems between binary numbers & decimal numbers

 Indicator 14.1.2 Describe different means of storage of information: analogue & digital

 Indicator 14.1.3 Explain how interference of light is used to recover information

 Indicator 14.1.4 Calculate an appropriate depth for a pit from the laser's wavelength

 Indicator 14.1.5 Solve problems on CDs and DVDs related to data storage capacity

 Indicator 14.1.6 Discuss advantages of storage of information in digital v. analogue

 Indicator 14.1.7 Discuss the implications for society of ever-increasing data storage

Benchmark 14.2
Data Capture; Digital Imaging Using Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs)

 Indicator 14.2.1 Define capacitance

 Indicator 14.2.2 Describe the structure of a charge-coupled device (CCD)

 Indicator 14.2.3 Explain how incident light causes charge to build up within a pixel

 Indicator 14.2.4 Outline how the image on a CCD is digitized

 Indicator 14.2.5 Define quantum efficiency of a pixel

 Indicator 14.2.6 Define magnification

 Indicator 14.2.7 State the minimum requirements to just resolve an object on a CCD

 Indicator 14.2.8 Discuss the effects of quantum efficiency, etc. on image quality

 Indicator 14.2.9 Describe a range of practical uses of CCD; list advantages over film

 Indicator 14.2.10 Outline how the image stored in a CCD is retrieved

 Indicator 14.2.11 Solve problems involving the use of CCDs

SCI.IBPH
Standard A
SIGHT AND WAVE PHENOMENA

Benchmark A.1
The Eye and Sight

 Indicator A.1.1 Describe the basic structure of the human eye

 Indicator A.1.2 State and explain the process of depth of vision and accommodation

 Indicator A.1.3 State that the retina contains rods & cones; describe the surface

 Indicator A.1.4 Describe the function of rods & cones in photopic and scotopic vision

 Indicator A.1.5 Describe colour mixing of light by addition and subtraction

 Indicator A.1.6 Discuss the effect of light, dark, and colour on perception of objects

Benchmark A.2
Standing (Stationary) Waves

 Indicator A.2.1 Describe the nature of standing (stationary) waves

 Indicator A.2.2 Explain the formation of one-dimensional standing waves

 Indicator A.2.3 Discuss modes of vibration of strings & air in open & in closed pipes

 Indicator A.2.4 Compare standing waves and travelling waves

 Indicator A.2.5 Solve problems involving standing waves

Benchmark A.3
Doppler Effect

 Indicator A.3.1 Describe what is meant by the Doppler effect

 Indicator A.3.2 Explain the Doppler effect by reference to wavefront diagrams

 Indicator A.3.3 Apply the Doppler effect equations for sound

 Indicator A.3.4 Solve problems on the Doppler effect for sound

 Indicator A.3.5 Solve problems on the Doppler effect for electromagnetic waves

 Indicator A.3.6 Outline an example in which Doppler effect is used to measure speed

Benchmark A.4
Diffraction

 Indicator A.4.1 Sketch the variation of the relative intensity of light

 Indicator A.4.2 Derive the formula for the position of the first minimum

 Indicator A.4.3 Solve problems involving single-slit diffraction

Benchmark A.5
Resolution

 Indicator A.5.1 Sketch the variation of the relative intensity of light

 Indicator A.5.2 State the Rayleigh criterion for images of two sources to be resolved

 Indicator A.5.3 Describe the significance of resolution in the development of devices

 Indicator A.5.4 Solve problems involving resolution

Benchmark A.6
Polarization

 Indicator A.6.1 Describe what is meant by polarized light

 Indicator A.6.2 Describe polarization by reflection

 Indicator A.6.3 State and apply Brewster's law

 Indicator A.6.4 Explain the terms polarizer and analyser

 Indicator A.6.5 Calculate the intensity of a beam of light using Malus' law

 Indicator A.6.6 Describe what is meant by an optically active substance

 Indicator A.6.7 Describe the use of polarization to determine solution concentration

 Indicator A.6.8 Outline qualitatively how polarization may be used in stress analysis

 Indicator A.6.9 Outline qualitatively the action of liquid-crystal displays (LCDs)

 Indicator A.6.10 Solve problems involving the polarization of light

SCI.IBPH
Standard B
QUANTUM PHYSICS AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Benchmark B.1
Quantum Physics

 Indicator B.1.1 Describe the photoelectric effect

 Indicator B.1.2 Describe concept of the photon; use it to explain photoelectric effect

 Indicator B.1.3 Describe and explain an experiment to test the Einstein model

 Indicator B.1.4 Solve problems involving the photoelectric effect

 Indicator B.1.5 Describe the de Broglie hypothesis and the concept of matter waves

 Indicator B.1.6 Outline an experiment to verify the de Broglie hypothesis

 Indicator B.1.7 Solve problems involving matter waves

 Indicator B.1.8 Outline a procedure for producing and observing atomic spectra

 Indicator B.1.9 Explain how atomic spectra provide evidence for quantization of energy

 Indicator B.1.10 Calculate wavelengths of spectral lines from energy level differences

 Indicator B.1.11 Explain the origin of atomic energy levels using "electron in a box"

 Indicator B.1.12 Outline the Schrödinger model of the hydrogen atom

 Indicator B.1.13 Outline the Heisenberg uncertainty principle

Benchmark B.2
Nuclear Physics

 Indicator B.2.1 Explain how the radii of nuclei may be estimated

 Indicator B.2.2 Describe how the masses of nuclei may be determined

 Indicator B.2.3 Describe one piece of evidence for existence of nuclear energy levels

 Indicator B.2.4 Describe beta decay, including the existence of the neutrino

 Indicator B.2.5 State the radioactive decay law as an exponential function

 Indicator B.2.6 Derive the relationship between decay constant and half-life

 Indicator B.2.7 Outline methods for measuring the half-life of an isotope

 Indicator B.2.8 Solve problems involving radioactive half-life

SCI.IBPH
Standard C
DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY

Benchmark C.1
Analogue and Digital Signals

 Indicator C.1.1 Solve conversion problems between binary numbers & decimal numbers

 Indicator C.1.2 Describe different means of storage of information; analogue & digital

 Indicator C.1.3 Explain how interference of light is used to recover information

 Indicator C.1.4 Calculate an appropriate depth for a pit from the laser's wavelength

 Indicator C.1.5 Solve problems on CDs and DVDs related to data storage capacity

 Indicator C.1.6 Discuss advantages of storage of information in digital v. analogue

 Indicator C.1.7 Discuss the implications for society of ever-increasing data storage

Benchmark C.2
Data Capture; Digital Imaging Using Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs)

 Indicator C.2.1 Define capacitance

 Indicator C.2.2 Describe the structure of a charge-coupled device (CCD). (Obj 2)

 Indicator C.2.3 Explain how incident light causes charge to build up within a pixel

 Indicator C.2.4 Outline how the image on a CCD is digitized

 Indicator C.2.5 Define quantum efficiency of a pixel

 Indicator C.2.6 Define magnification

 Indicator C.2.7 State the minimum requirements to just resolve an object on a CCD

 Indicator C.2.8 Discuss the effects of quantum efficiency, etc. on image quality

 Indicator C.2.9 Describe a range of practical uses of CCD; list advantages over film

 Indicator C.2.10 Outline how the image stored in a CCD is retrieved

 Indicator C.2.11 Solve problems involving the use of CCDs

Benchmark C.3
Electronics

 Indicator C.3.1 State the properties of an ideal operational amplifier (op-amp)

 Indicator C.3.2 Draw circuit diagrams incorporating operational amplifiers

 Indicator C.3.3 Derive an expression for the gain of amplifiers (inverting and non)

 Indicator C.3.4 Describe the use of an operational amplifier circuit as a comparator

 Indicator C.3.5 Describe the use of a Schmitt trigger for the reshaping of pulses

 Indicator C.3.6 Solve problems involving circuits incorporating operational amplifiers

Benchmark C.4
The Mobile Phone System

 Indicator C.4.1 State that any area is allocated a range of frequencies for its cells

 Indicator C.4.2 Describe the role of the cellular exchange and PSTN in communications

 Indicator C.4.3 Discuss the use of mobile phones in multimedia communication

 Indicator C.4.4 Discuss the moral, ethical, etc. issues arising from mobile phone use

SCI.IBPH
Standard D
RELATIVITY AND PARTICLE PHYSICS

Benchmark D.1
Introduction to Relativity

 Indicator D.1.1 Describe what is meant by a frame of reference

 Indicator D.1.2 Describe what is meant by a Galilean transformation

 Indicator D.1.3 Solve problems involving relative velocities

Benchmark D.2
Concepts and Postulates of Special Relativity

 Indicator D.2.1 Describe what is meant by an inertial frame of reference

 Indicator D.2.2 State the two postulates of the special theory of relativity

 Indicator D.2.3 Discuss the concept of simultaneity

Benchmark D.3
Relativistic Kinematics

 Indicator D.3.1 Describe the concept of a light clock

 Indicator D.3.2 Define proper time interval

 Indicator D.3.3 Derive the time dilation formula

 Indicator D.3.4 Sketch and annotate a graph showing variation with relative velocity

 Indicator D.3.5 Solve problems involving time dilation

 Indicator D.3.6 Define proper length

 Indicator D.3.7 Describe the phenomenon of length contraction

 Indicator D.3.8 Solve problems involving length contraction

Benchmark D.4
Particles and Interactions

 Indicator D.4.1 State what is meant by an elementary particle

 Indicator D.4.2 Identify elementary particles

 Indicator D.4.3 Describe particles in terms of mass and various quantum numbers

 Indicator D.4.4 Classify particles according to spin

 Indicator D.4.5 State what is meant by an antiparticle

 Indicator D.4.6 State the Pauli exclusion principle

 Indicator D.4.7 List the fundamental interactions

 Indicator D.4.8 Describe the fundamental interactions in terms of exchange particles

 Indicator D.4.9 Discuss the uncertainty principle in the context of particle creation

 Indicator D.4.10 Describe what is meant by a Feynman diagram

 Indicator D.4.11 Discuss how a Feynman diagram may be used to calculate probabilities

 Indicator D.4.12 Describe what is meant by virtual particles

 Indicator D.4.13 Apply the formula for the range for particle exchange

 Indicator D.4.14 Describe pair annihilation and pair production using Feynmen diagrams

 Indicator D.4.15 Predict particle processes using Feynman diagrams

Benchmark D.5
Quarks

 Indicator D.5.1 List the six types of quark

 Indicator D.5.2 State the content of hadrons

 Indicator D.5.3 State the quark content of the proton and the neutron

 Indicator D.5.4 Define baryon number and apply law of conservation of baryon number

 Indicator D.5.5 Deduce the spin structure of hadrons

 Indicator D.5.6 Explain the need for colour in forming bound states of quarks

 Indicator D.5.7 State the colour of quarks and gluons

 Indicator D.5.8 Outline the concept of strangeness

 Indicator D.5.9 Discuss quark confinement

 Indicator D.5.10 Discuss the interaction that binds nucleons

SCI.IBPH
Standard E
ASTROPHYSICS

Benchmark E.1
Introduction to the Universe

 Indicator E.1.1 Outline the general structure of the solar system

 Indicator E.1.2 Distinguish between a stellar cluster and a constellation

 Indicator E.1.3 Define the light year

 Indicator E.1.4 Compare the relative distances between stars

 Indicator E.1.5 Describe the apparent motion of the stars/constellations

Benchmark E.2

 Indicator E.2.1 State that fusion is the main energy source of stars

 Indicator E.2.2 Explain the equilibrium in a stable star

 Indicator E.2.3 Define the luminosity of a star

 Indicator E.2.4 Define apparent brightness and state how it is measured

 Indicator E.2.5 Apply the Stefan-Boltzmann law to compare luminosities

 Indicator E.2.6 State Wien's law and apply it to the colour and temperature of stars

 Indicator E.2.7 Explain how atomic spectra may be used to deduce data for stars

 Indicator E.2.8 Describe the overall classification system of spectral classes

 Indicator E.2.9 Describe the different types of star

 Indicator E.2.10 Discuss the characteristics of spectroscopic & eclipsing binary stars

 Indicator E.2.11 Identify the regions of star types on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

Benchmark E.3
Stellar Distances

 Indicator E.3.1 Define the parsec

 Indicator E.3.2 Describe the stellar parallax method of finding the distance to a star

 Indicator E.3.3 Explain why the method of stellar parallax is limited in distance

 Indicator E.3.4 Solve problems involving stellar parallax

 Indicator E.3.5 Describe the apparent magnitude scale

 Indicator E.3.6 Define absolute magnitude

 Indicator E.3.7 Solve problems involving apparent/absolute magnitude & distance

 Indicator E.3.8 Solve problems involving apparent brightness and apparent magnitude

 Indicator E.3.9 State that the luminosity of a star may be estimated from its spectrum

 Indicator E.3.10 Explain how stellar distance may be determined

 Indicator E.3.11 State that the method of spectroscopic parallax is limited to < 10 Mpc

 Indicator E.3.12 Solve problems involving distances, apparent brightness and luminosity

 Indicator E.3.13 Outline the nature of a Cepheid variable

 Indicator E.3.14 State the relationship between period and absolute magnitude

 Indicator E.3.15 Explain how Cepheid variables may be used as "standard candles"

 Indicator E.3.16 Determine the distance to a Cepheid variable

Benchmark E.4
Cosmology

 Indicator E.4.1 Describe Newton’s model of the universe

 Indicator E.4.3 Suggest that red-shift of light indicates expansion of the universe

 Indicator E.4.4 Describe both space and time as originating with the Big Bang

 Indicator E.4.5 Describe the discovery of CMB radiation by Penzias and Wilson

 Indicator E.4.6 Explain how cosmic radiation is consistent with the Big Bang model

 Indicator E.4.7 Suggest how Big Bang model provides a resolution to Olbers' paradox

 Indicator E.4.8 Distinguish between the terms open, flat and closed

 Indicator E.4.9 Define the term critical density by reference to a flat model

 Indicator E.4.10 Discuss how the density of the universe determines its development

 Indicator E.4.11 Discuss problems with determining the density of the universe

 Indicator E.4.12 State that current scientific evidence suggests the universe is open

 Indicator E.4.13 Discuss example of the international nature of astrophysics research

 Indicator E.4.14 Evaluate arguments related to researching the nature of the universe

Benchmark E.5
Stellar Processes and Stellar Evolution (HL)

 Indicator E.5.1 Describe the conditions that initiate fusion in a star

 Indicator E.5.2 State the effect of a star’s mass on the end product of nuclear fusion

 Indicator E.5.3 Outline the changes that take place when a star becomes a red giant

 Indicator E.5.4 Apply the mass–luminosity relation

 Indicator E.5.5 Explain how the Chandrasekhar and Oppenheimer-Volkoff limits are used

 Indicator E.5.6 Compare the fate of a red giant and a red supergiant

 Indicator E.5.7 Draw evolutionary paths of stars on an HR diagram

 Indicator E.5.8 Outline the characteristics of pulsars

Benchmark E.6
Galaxies and the Expanding Universe (HL)

 Indicator E.6.1 Describe the distribution of galaxies in the universe

 Indicator E.6.2 Explain the red-shift of light from distant galaxies

 Indicator E.6.3 Solve problems involving red-shift and the recession speed of galaxies

 Indicator E.6.4 State Hubble's law

 Indicator E.6.5 Discuss the limitations of Hubble's law

 Indicator E.6.6 Explain how the Hubble constant may be determined

 Indicator E.6.7 Explain how the Hubble constant is used to estimate the universe's age

 Indicator E.6.8 Solve problems involving Hubble's law

 Indicator E.6.9 Explain how the expansion of the universe made atoms, etc. possible

SCI.IBPH
Standard F
COMMUNICATIONS

Benchmark F.1

 Indicator F.1.1 Describe what is meant by the modulation of a wave

 Indicator F.1.2 Distinguish between a carrier wave and a signal wave

 Indicator F.1.3 Describe amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM)

 Indicator F.1.4 Solve problems based on the modulation of the carrier wave

 Indicator F.1.5 Sketch and analyse graphs of the power spectrum of a carrier wave

 Indicator F.1.6 Define what is meant by sideband frequencies and bandwidth

 Indicator F.1.7 Solve problems involving sideband frequencies and bandwidth

 Indicator F.1.8 Describe the relative advantages and disadvantages of AM and FM

 Indicator F.1.9 Describe, by means of a block diagram, an AM radio receiver

Benchmark F.2
Digital Signals

 Indicator F.2.1 Solve problems involving the conversion of binary and decimal numbers

 Indicator F.2.2 Distinguish between analogue and digital signals

 Indicator F.2.3 State the advantages of the digital transmission of information

 Indicator F.2.4 Describe the principles of the transmission and reception

 Indicator F.2.5 Explain the significance of the number of bits and bit-rate

 Indicator F.2.6 Describe what is meant by time-division multiplexing

 Indicator F.2.7 Solve problems involving analogue-to-digital conversion

 Indicator F.2.8 Describe the consequences of digital communication and multiplexing

 Indicator F.2.9 Discuss the social, economic and environmental issues of the Internet

Benchmark F.3
Optic Fiber Transmission

 Indicator F.3.1 Explain what is meant by critical angle and total internal reflection

 Indicator F.3.2 Solve problems involving refractive index and critical angle

 Indicator F.3.3 Apply the concept of total internal reflection to an optic fibre

 Indicator F.3.4 Describe the effects of material dispersion and modal dispersion

 Indicator F.3.5 Explain what is meant by attenuation and solve problems

 Indicator F.3.6 Describe the variation with wavelength of the attenuation of radiation

 Indicator F.3.7 State what is meant by noise in an optic fibre

 Indicator F.3.8 Describe the role of amplifiers and reshapers in optic fibre

 Indicator F.3.9 Solve problems involving optic fibres

Benchmark F.4
Channels of Communication

 Indicator F.4.1 Outline different channels of communication

 Indicator F.4.2 Discuss uses & relative advantages of different communication channels

 Indicator F.4.3 State what is meant by a geostationary satellite

 Indicator F.4.4 State the order of magnitude of the frequencies used for communication

 Indicator F.4.5 Discuss the pros & cons of geostationary vs. polar-orbiting satellites

 Indicator F.4.6 Discuss the social, economic and environmental issues of satellites

Benchmark F.5
Electronics (HL)

 Indicator F.5.1 State the properties of an ideal operational amplifier (op-amp)

 Indicator F.5.2 Draw circuit diagrams incorporating operational amplifiers

 Indicator F.5.3 Derive an expression for the gain of amplifiers (inverting and non)

 Indicator F.5.4 Describe the use of an operational amplifier circuit as a comparator

 Indicator F.5.5 Describe the use of a Schmitt trigger for the reshaping of pulses

 Indicator F.5.6 Solve problems involving circuits incorporating operational amplifiers

Benchmark F.6
The Mobile Phone System (HL)

 Indicator F.6.1 State that any area is allocated a range of frequencies for its cells

 Indicator F.6.2 Describe the role of cellular exchange and the PSTN in communications

 Indicator F.6.3 Discuss the use of mobile phones in multimedia communication

 Indicator F.6.4 Discuss the moral, ethical, etc. issues arising from mobile phone use

SCI.IBPH
Standard G
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Benchmark G.1
The Nature of EM Waves and Light Sources

 Indicator G.1.1 Outline the nature of electromagnetic (EM) waves

 Indicator G.1.2 Describe the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum

 Indicator G.1.3 Describe what is meant by the dispersion of EM waves

 Indicator G.1.4 Describe the dispersion of EM waves

 Indicator G.1.5 Distinguish transmission, absorption and scattering of radiation

 Indicator G.1.6 Discuss examples: transmission, absorption, scattering of EM radiation

 Indicator G.1.7 Explain the terms monochromatic and coherent

 Indicator G.1.8 Identify laser light as a source of coherent light

 Indicator G.1.9 Outline the mechanism for the production of laser light

 Indicator G.1.10 Outline an application of the use of a laser

Benchmark G.2
Optical Instruments

 Indicator G.2.1 Define terms as applied to a converging (convex) lens

 Indicator G.2.2 Define the power of a convex lens and the dioptre

 Indicator G.2.3 Define linear magnification

 Indicator G.2.4 Construct ray diagrams to locate the image formed by a convex lens

 Indicator G.2.5 Distinguish between a real image and a virtual image

 Indicator G.2.6 Apply “real is positive, virtual is negative” to the thin lens formula

 Indicator G.2.7 Solve problems for a single convex lens using the thin lens formula

 Indicator G.2.8 Define the terms far point and near point for the unaided eye

 Indicator G.2.9 Define angular magnification

 Indicator G.2.10 Derive an expression for the angular magnification

 Indicator G.2.11 Construct a ray diagram for a compound microscope

 Indicator G.2.12 Construct a ray diagram for an astronomical telescope

 Indicator G.2.13 State the equation relating angular magnification to the focal lengths

 Indicator G.2.14 Solve problems involving the microscope and telescope

 Indicator G.2.15 Explain the meaning of spherical aberration and chromatic aberration

 Indicator G.2.16 Describe how spherical aberration in a lens may be reduced

 Indicator G.2.17 Describe how chromatic aberration in a lens may be reduced

Benchmark G.3
Two-Source Interference of Waves

 Indicator G.3.1 State conditions necessary to observe interference between two sources

 Indicator G.3.2 Explain, using the principle of superposition, an interference pattern

 Indicator G.3.3 Outline a double-slit experiment for light and draw the distribution

 Indicator G.3.4 Solve problems involving two-source interference

Benchmark G.4
Diffraction Grating

 Indicator G.4.1 Describe the effect of increasing the number of slits on distribution

 Indicator G.4.2 Derive the diffraction grating formula for normal incidence

 Indicator G.4.3 Outline the use of a diffraction grating to measure wavelengths

 Indicator G.4.4 Solve problems involving a diffraction grating

Benchmark G.5
X-rays (HL)

 Indicator G.5.1 Outline the experimental arrangement for the production of X-rays

 Indicator G.5.2 Draw and annotate a typical X-ray spectrum

 Indicator G.5.3 Explain the origins of the features of a characteristic X-ray spectrum

 Indicator G.5.4 Solve problems: accelerating potential difference & minimum wavelength

 Indicator G.5.5 Explain how X-ray diffraction arises

 Indicator G.5.6 Derive the Bragg scattering equation

 Indicator G.5.7 Outline how cubic crystals may be used to measure wavelength of X-rays

 Indicator G.5.8 Outline how X-rays may be used to determine the structure of crystals

 Indicator G.5.9 Solve problems involving the Bragg equation

Benchmark G.6
Thin-Film Interference (HL)

 Indicator G.6.1 Explain the production of interference fringes by a thin air wedge

 Indicator G.6.2 Explain how wedge fringes can be used to measure small separations

 Indicator G.6.3 Describe how thin-film interference is used to test optical flats

 Indicator G.6.4 Solve problems involving wedge films

 Indicator G.6.5 State the condition for light to undergo a phase change of pi or none

 Indicator G.6.6 Describe how a source of light gives rise to an interference pattern

 Indicator G.6.7 State the conditions for constructive and destructive interference

 Indicator G.6.8 Explain the formation of colored fringes when white light is reflected

 Indicator G.6.9 Describe the difference between fringes formed by a parallel vs. wedge

 Indicator G.6.10 Describe applications of parallel thin films

 Indicator G.6.11 Solve problems involving parallel films

SCI.IBPH
Standard H
RELATIVITY - HL only

Benchmark H.1
Introduction to Relativity (HL)

 Indicator H.1.1 Describe what is meant by a frame of reference

 Indicator H.1.2 Describe what is meant by a Galilean transformation

 Indicator H.1.3 Solve problems involving relative velocities

Benchmark H.2
Concepts and Postulates of Special Relativity (HL)

 Indicator H.2.1 Describe what is meant by an inertial frame of reference

 Indicator H.2.2 State the two postulates of the special theory of relativity

 Indicator H.2.3 Discuss the concept of simultaneity

Benchmark H.3
Relativistic Kinematics (HL)

 Indicator H.3.1 Describe the concept of a light clock

 Indicator H.3.2 Define proper time interval

 Indicator H.3.3 Derive the time dilation formula

 Indicator H.3.4 Sketch and annotate a graph showing variation with relative velocity

 Indicator H.3.5 Solve problems involving time dilation

 Indicator H.3.6 Define proper length

 Indicator H.3.7 Describe the phenomenon of length contraction

 Indicator H.3.8 Solve problems involving length contraction

Benchmark H.4
Some Consequences of Special Relativity (HL)

 Indicator H.4.1 Describe how the concept of time dilation leads to the “twin paradox”

 Indicator H.4.2 Discuss the Hafele-Keating experiment

 Indicator H.4.3 Solve one-dimensional problems: relativistic addition of velocities

 Indicator H.4.4 State the formula representing the equivalence of mass and energy

 Indicator H.4.5 Define rest mass

 Indicator H.4.6 Distinguish between the energy of a body at rest and at motion

 Indicator H.4.7 Explain why no object can ever attain the speed of light in a vacuum

 Indicator H.4.8 Determine the total energy of an accelerated particle

Benchmark H.5
Evidence to Support Special Relativity (HL)

 Indicator H.5.1 Discuss muon decay as evidence to support special relativity

 Indicator H.5.2 Solve problems involving the muon decay experiment

 Indicator H.5.3 Outline the Michelson-Morley experiment

 Indicator H.5.4 Discuss the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment

 Indicator H.5.5 Outline an experiment relating speed of light in a vacuum & its source

Benchmark H.6
Relativistic Momentum and Energy (HL)

 Indicator H.6.1 Apply the relation for the relativistic momentum of particles

 Indicator H.6.2 Apply the formula for the kinetic energy of a particle

 Indicator H.6.3 Solve problems involving relativistic momentum and energy

Benchmark H.7
General Relativity (HL)

 Indicator H.7.1 Explain the difference between gravitational and inertial mass

 Indicator H.7.2 Describe and discuss Einstein's principle of equivalence

 Indicator H.7.3 Deduce a prediction about light rays in a gravitational field

 Indicator H.7.4 Deduce a prediction about the speed of time near a massive body

 Indicator H.7.5 Describe the concept of spacetime

 Indicator H.7.6 State that moving objects follow the shortest path in spacetime

 Indicator H.7.7 Explain gravitational attraction in terms of warping of spacetime

 Indicator H.7.8 Describe black holes

 Indicator H.7.9 Define the term Schwarzschild radius

 Indicator H.7.10 Calculate the Schwarzschild radius

 Indicator H.7.11 Solve problems involving time dilation close to a black hole

 Indicator H.7.12 Describe the concept of gravitational red-shift

 Indicator H.7.13 Solve problems involving frequency shifts

 Indicator H.7.14 Solve problems using the gravitational time dilation formula

Benchmark H.8
Evidence to Support General Relativity (HL)

 Indicator H.8.1 Outline an experiment for the bending of EM waves by a massive object

 Indicator H.8.2 Describe gravitational lensing

 Indicator H.8.3 Outline experiment that provides evidence for gravitational red-shift

SCI.IBPH
Standard I
MEDICAL PHYSICS - HL only

Benchmark I.1
The Ear and Hearing (HL)

 Indicator I.1.1 Describe the basic structure of the human ear

 Indicator I.1.2 Explain how sound pressure variations are changed in cochlear fluid

 Indicator I.1.3 State the range of audible frequencies experienced in normal hearing

 Indicator I.1.4 Explain how a change in observed loudness is a response to intensity

 Indicator I.1.5 Explain that there is a logarithmic response of the ear to intensity

 Indicator I.1.6 Define intensity and also intensity level (IL)

 Indicator I.1.7 State the intensity level at which discomfort is experienced

 Indicator I.1.8 Solve problems involving intensity levels

 Indicator I.1.9 Describe the effects on hearing of short & long-term exposure to noise

 Indicator I.1.10 Analyze graphs of IL vs. logarithm of frequency for hearing levels

Benchmark I.2
Medical Imaging (HL)

 Indicator I.2.1 Define the terms attenuation coefficient and half-value thickness

 Indicator I.2.2 Derive the relation of attenuation coefficient & half-value thickness

 Indicator I.2.3 Solve problems using the equation for X-ray attenuation

 Indicator I.2.4 Describe X-ray detection, recording and display techniques

 Indicator I.2.5 Explain standard X-ray imaging techniques used in medicine

 Indicator I.2.6 Outline the principles of computed tomography (CT)

 Indicator I.2.7 Describe the generation and detection of ultrasound using crystals

 Indicator I.2.8 Define acoustic impedance

 Indicator I.2.9 Solve problems involving acoustic impedance

 Indicator I.2.10 Outline the differences between A-scans and B-scans

 Indicator I.2.11 Identify factors that affect the choice of diagnostic frequency

 Indicator I.2.12 Outline the basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

 Indicator I.2.13 Describe examples of the use of lasers in clinical diagnosis & therapy

Benchmark I.3

 Indicator I.3.1 State the meanings of terms used in radiation dosimetry

 Indicator I.3.2 Discuss the precautions taken in situations involving radiation

 Indicator I.3.3 Discuss the concept of balanced risk

 Indicator I.3.4 Distinguish between physical, biological and effective half-lives

 Indicator I.3.5 Solve problems involving radiation dosimetry

 Indicator I.3.6 Outline the basis of radiation therapy for cancer

 Indicator I.3.7 Solve problems involving the choice of the most suitable radio-isotope

 Indicator I.3.8 Solve problems involving particular diagnostic applications

SCI.IBPH
Standard J
PARTICLE PHYSICS - HL only

Benchmark J.1
Particles and Interactions (HL)

 Indicator J.1.1 State what is meant by an elementary particle

 Indicator J.1.2 Identify elementary particles

 Indicator J.1.3 Describe particles in terms of mass and various quantum numbers

 Indicator J.1.4 Classify particles according to spin

 Indicator J.1.5 State what is meant by an antiparticle

 Indicator J.1.6 State the Pauli exclusion principle

 Indicator J.1.7 List the fundamental interactions

 Indicator J.1.8 Describe the fundamental interactions in terms of exchange particles

 Indicator J.1.9 Discuss the uncertainty principle in the context of particle creation

 Indicator J.1.10 Describe what is meant by a Feynman diagram

 Indicator J.1.11 Discuss how a Feynman diagram may be used to calculate probabilities

 Indicator J.1.12 Describe what is meant by virtual particles

 Indicator J.1.13 Apply the formula the range for particle exchange

 Indicator J.1.14 Describe pair annihilation and pair production using Feynman diagrams

 Indicator J.1.15 Predict particle processes using Feynman diagrams

Benchmark J.2
Particle Accelerators and Detectors (HL)

 Indicator J.2.1 Explain the need for high energies to produce particles of large mass

 Indicator J.2.2 Explain the need for high energies to resolve particles of small size

 Indicator J.2.3 Outline structure & operation of a linear accelerator and a cyclotron

 Indicator J.2.4 Outline the structure and explain the operation of a synchrotron

 Indicator J.2.5 State what is meant by bremsstrahlung (braking) radiation

 Indicator J.2.6 Compare pros & cons of linear accelerators, cyclotrons, synchrotrons

 Indicator J.2.7 Solve problems related to the production of particles in accelerators

 Indicator J.2.8 Outline operation of bubble chamber, photomultiplier, wire chamber

 Indicator J.2.9 Outline international aspects of high-energy particle physics research

 Indicator J.2.10 Discuss the implications of high-energy particle physics research

Benchmark J.3
Quarks (HL)

 Indicator J.3.1 List the six types of quark

 Indicator J.3.2 State the content of hadrons

 Indicator J.3.3 State the quark content of the proton and the neutron

 Indicator J.3.4 Define baryon number and apply law of conservation of baryon number

 Indicator J.3.5 Deduce the spin structure of hadrons

 Indicator J.3.6 Explain the need for colour in forming bound states of quarks

 Indicator J.3.7 State the colour of quarks and gluons

 Indicator J.3.8 Outline the concept of strangeness

 Indicator J.3.9 Discuss quark confinement

 Indicator J.3.10 Discuss the interaction that binds nucleons

Benchmark J.4
Leptons and the Standard Model (HL)

 Indicator J.4.1 State the 3-family structure of quarks & leptons in the standard model

 Indicator J.4.2 State the lepton number of the leptons in each family

 Indicator J.4.3 Solve problems involving conservation laws in particle reactions

 Indicator J.4.4 Evaluate the significance of the Higgs particle (boson)

Benchmark J.5
Experimental Evidence for the Quark and Standard Models (HL)

 Indicator J.5.1 State what is meant by deep inelastic scattering

 Indicator J.5.2 Analyse the results of deep inelastic scattering experiments

 Indicator J.5.3 Describe what is meant by asymptotic freedom

 Indicator J.5.4 Describe what is meant by neutral current

 Indicator J.5.5 Describe how the neutral current is evidence for the standard model

Benchmark J.6
Cosmology and Strings (HL)

 Indicator J.6.1 State the temperature change of the universe since the Big Bang

 Indicator J.6.2 Solve problems involving particle interactions in the early universe

 Indicator J.6.3 State relationship of particles & antiparticles in the early universe

 Indicator J.6.4 Suggest a mechanism for the predominance of matter over antimatter

 Indicator J.6.5 Describe qualitatively the theory of strings

Essential - Standard, benchmark, or indicator from the VDOE Standards of Learning document. In the absence of VDOE standards for a given course, content subject to testing such as AP and IB can be labeled Essential.
Expected - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies to provide a context, a bridge, or an enhancement to the Essential SBIs.
Extended - Standard, benchmark, or indicator added by the FCPS Program of Studies generally used to differentiate instruction for advanced learners (Honors/GT)