World History and Geography One Review, Activity Sheet and Parent Signature
Early human societies met their needs through hunting and gathering.
As nomads, clans of early man migrated with herds of animals according to seasons.
Human ancestors walked upright in eastern Africa about 3-4 million years ago.
Homo sapiens emerged in Africa between 100,000 - 400, 00 years ago.
Prehistory - the story humankind really begins in the time before people developed writing.
Homo sapiens migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas.
Early humans adapted to their environment by devising new clothing and shaping simple tools for hunting and gathering.
Hominids - early humans
Australopithecus-southern ape (4.4 million years ago) 3.5 to 5.0 feet tall and walked on two legs.
Homo habilis-person with ability (lived about 1.5 million years ago)
Homo erectus - person who walks upright
Homo sapien - person who thinks (100,000 and 200,00 years ago)
Early homo sapiens - Neanderthals from the Neander Valley in Germany (200,000 years ago) Neanderthals were nomadic hunter-gathers who used fire for warmth and for cooking their food, but their tool making ability was more sophisticated than that of homo erectus. Neanderthals skillfully crafted stone knives, spear points and bone tools.
Cro-Magnons - the earliest Homo sapiens were found in Europe after the rock shelter in France. The Cro-Magnons used bone, antler, and ivory to make new kinds of tools- hammers, hoes, and pincers. Soon they were fishing with bone fishhooks and using bone needles to sew fitted leather clothes.
Cro-Magnons invented the stone ax. The stone ax was used to chop down trees and shape them into canoes.
Scientists that traced the early origin of early humans are as follows: Physical anthropologist, Paleontologist, and Archaeologists.
Artifacts included any objects that were shaped by human hands-tools, pots, and beads-as well as other remains of human life, such as bits of charcoal.
Technology for dating the age of early humans and artifacts is called radio carbon dating and collection of DNA.
Nomadic peoples followed herds of animals and/or migrated in search of water, food, and shelter.
Hunter-gatherers lived in clans searching for seeds, nuts, and meat.
Early humans developed oral language.
Early humans invented tools and mastered the use of fire to control aspects of their environment.
Three stone eras - Paleolithic - oldest stone era, Mesolithic - middle stone era, and Neolithic- newest stone era
Old Stone Age - Oral language, invention of clothing, cave art discovered, invention of fire and invention of simple weapons
New Stone Age- Invention and discovery of the following: Domesticated animals, weaving of fabric and cloth, settled farming/seed culture, advanced tools, and pottery.
Location of ancient river valley civilizations between 5000- 1500 BC or bce
Egypt was located in Africa on a narrow strip of land along the Nile River.
Mesopotamia was located between the Tigris and Euphrates River - Sumer, Ur, Babylon, Urba, etc. (modern day Iraq)
India (Harappa or Mohenjo-daro) was located in South Asia along the Indus and Ganges Rivers between modern day Pakistan and borders India.
China was located on the Hwang Ho River in Northern China (The Shang Dynasty)
Physical features that provided natural defense against migratory peoples surrounded each civilization
Soils were rich for farming
Water was available for irrigation
Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia), located along the Mediterranean Coast connecting Mesopotamia and Nile regions was settled between 2000-1000 B.C. or bce.
1. Hebrews settled in Palestine
2. Phoenicians settled the coast. (near modern day Israel)
Persians dominated the Plateau of Iran around 500 B.C. or bce
Ancient river valley civilizations and trade empires were characterized by settled agriculture, city-states, trade in products and ideas, central governments with written laws, written languages, specialized labor, social hierarchies, and religious institutions.
1. Agriculture - settled farming resulted from domesticating animals and plants, irrigation, and seed cultivation.
2. Economy - surplus food promoted trade along rivers and on seas (Phoenicians), storage of food, accounting systems, and city development. Government controlled economic life.
3. Government - centralized government is often related to religion. Written codes and laws provided justice (the Ten Commandments - the Hebrews or Jews people or the religion of Judaism) (The Law Codes of Hammurabi from Babylon of Mesopotamia)
4. Religion - Ancient peoples practiced polytheism except (excluding) for the Hebrews (Jews or Judaism) who practiced monotheism. Monotheism is the worship of one God.
5. Language - Written language (cuneiform - Sumer or Mesopotamia, hieroglyphics -Egypt or hieratic the common language of Egypt and Pictograms - Indus Valley) developed from pictures. latter, the Phoenicians developed the alphabet with 22 letters.
6. Technology - Ancient river valley civilizations' artisans worked copper metals, developed chariots for warfare, and used plows.
7. Mathematics - Ancient civilizations developed mathematics for building. Egypt develops the concept of ___________ to build the pyramids.
Ancient Greece from 2000 to 300 B.C. or bce.
8. Mountainous terrain and its location between the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas define the physical geography of Greece.
9. The location of Greece facilitated trade and cultural exchange throughout the Mediterranean basin.
10. Ancient Greece was located on a peninsula between the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, within easy sailing distance of the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia) and Egypt. This location promoted contacts for trade and ideas.
11. Mountainous terrain resulted in isolated development of city states rather than a central government, poor farmland that pushed people to colonize land outside Greece, and dependence on trade.
12. Good harbors supported merchants and traders whose contacts brought cultural changes and technology.
13. Mild climate promoted public life outdoors, where people knew each other and discussed issues and news, resulting in an increase in civic life.
14. Greek mythology was based on a polytheistic religion (belief in more than one god or deity) that was integral to the culture, politics, and art in ancient Greece.
15. Many of modern Western civilization’s idealized images, literary and political symbols, and political vocabulary come from ancient Greek mythology.
16. Mythology: A rich collection of stories/ myths about Greek gods/goddesses explaining the mysteries of nature and human life
17. Greek gods: Representations of essential human qualities which have continued as symbols and images in modern Western literature and art
18. Religion: Polytheism- many gods including Zeus, Hera, Athena, Dionysus, Hestia, Poseidon, Aphrodite: gods considered a part of public life.
19. With limited agricultural land, the Greeks migrated to new locations outside Greece, colonizing the eastern Mediterranean Sea.
20. Greek colonies were established to ease overcrowding in mainland Greece.
21. Wine and olive products were exchanged for grain to support home cities.
22. Commercial expansion brought farmers from villages to the cities as skilled craftsmen.
Trade between Greek city-states and Greek colonies produced a commercial revolution in the area. Contact with the Fertile Crescent expanded culture and trade.
Greek merchants traded throughout the Mediterranean area replacing barter with a money economy.
Trade advanced Greek culture and influence in the Mediterranean region.
23. Participation by male citizens in the affairs of Athens was an accepted part of daily life. These rights and responsibilities evolved into an organized system of government that is the foundation of modern democracies.
The Polis (city-state), center of Greek identity, commanded intense loyalty-a citizen was first member of the polis. There were three groups of inhabitants:
24. Citizens-adult males who typically operated businesses in the agora (open marketplace)
25. Free people with no political rights-women who cared for the household
26. Noncitizens -slaves who had no rights
Citizenship was based on the belief that human beings are rational individuals
Democratic government developed in stages as Greeks struggled to meet the challenges of the time.
27. Civic decisions were made in open debate. Men were expected to participate in public life.
28. Athens was the primary city-state in Greece after 750 B.C. or bce., and its government passed through four distinct stages:
Monarchy: rule by one person inheriting power by family succession
Aristocracy: rule by a small group of nobles
Tyranny: rule by one person, the tyrant, who seized power
Democracy: rule by an assembly in which citizens could vote
The struggle for power was often influenced by the plight of farmers.
Two aristocrats worked for reforms that led to democracy:
1. Draco created written laws with severe punishments.
2. Solon improved the legal system and expanded participation in the Assembly.
By successfully repelling the mighty invasions of Persia, the Greeks preserved their political independence and individual freedom.
1. Persian wars united the Greeks against an external enemy. Victories at Marathon and Salamis left Greeks in control of the Aegean area.
With the threat of external invasion removed, the Greeks, particularly the Athenians, developed a Golden Age of Greece in which Greek art, philosophy, and culture flourished.
Competition between Sparta and Athens for control of Greece culminated in the catastrophic Peloponnesian War.
Causes of the Peloponnesian War
1. Athenian dominance of Greek city-states in the Delian League
2. Sparta’s competition with Athena for control
Effects of the Peloponnesian War
1. Hellenistic Period ended
2. Greece left vulnerable to invasion
3. Cultural development arrested
Pericles so dominated life in Athens that his years of leadership were called the Golden Age. Hellenic culture reached its height during the Age of Pericles.
1. Pericles developed a democracy where all adult male citizens had an equal voice in government.
2. Pericles rebuilt Athens after its destruction in the Persian Wars-- the Parthenon is an example of this reconstruction/
3. Athens, under Pericles, created the Delian League, and alliance of Greek city-states, as a defense against external enemies.
4. During the Golden Age of Greece or Periclean Era; art, drama, philosophy, science, mathematics, and architecture flourished in Athens.
Contributions of the Ancient Greeks
Philosophy: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
Drama: Aeschylus and Euripides
Poetry: Homer (bard)
Architecture: Parthenon and columns (Doric, Ionian, and Corinthian)
Science: Archimedes and Hippocrates
Mathematics: Euclid and Pythagoras
The Macedonia conquest of Greece followed the weakening of Greek defense during the Peloponnesian War.
Alexander the Great adopted Greek culture, spreading Hellenistic thought throughout his vast empire.
1. Phillip II conquered most of Greece, and his son, Alexander the Great, conquered the Persian Empire, extending his influence from Macedonia/Greece to the Indus River Valley.
Alexander carried Greek culture to conquered territories.
Conquered people combined Greek culture with their own
Greek was spoken by leaders throughout Mesopotamia and Egypt (Cultural Exchange)
The Hellenistic Age lasted until the rise of the Roman Empire
The geography of Rome was defined by its location on the Italian Peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean Sea.
Location on the Italian peninsula created a natural crossroads for trade, cultural exchange, and conquest in the Mediterranean basin. (Rome, Italy is centrally located in the Mediterranean Region.)
The Alps provided Italy protection from invading forces, as did the seas surrounding the Italian peninsula.
Roman mythology was based upon a polytheistic religion that was integral to Ancient Rome’s culture, politics, and art.
1. Roman mythology was based on a polytheistic religion that was integral to Ancient Rome’s culture, politics, and art.
Many idealized images, literary and political symbols, and political vocabulary in modern Western culture are derived from Ancient Roman mythology.
Roman gods and goddess were based on Greek Mythology.
Roman gods and goddesses
The Roman Republic contained three classes:
Patricians - nobility (few in number)
Plebeians - majority of population consisting of landowners, townspeople, merchants, and small farmers
slaves - people forced into servant classes by conquest
Roman citizens held rights and responsibilities not available to slaves and non-Romans living in the Republic.
Citizenship was held by all patricians and plebeians and extended to a few aliens as a privilege. All citizens could vote but had the responsibility to pay taxes and serve in the military.
Two consuls were elected by the Assembly to serve Rome for one year. They could veto decisions made by the Assembly.
Representation: Patricians served in the Senate and Assembly. Plebeians served as tribunes, later gaining right to make the laws of Rome. The laws of Rome were codified as the Twelve Tables.
Three Punic Wars were fought between Rome and Carthage (modern day Tunisia, North Africa) with Hannibal invading Rome at one point. The wars led to development of a powerful Roman navy and the destruction of Carthage.
With the defeat of Carthage, Rome was unchallenged in the Western Mediterranean Sea leading to the conquest of Western Europe.
Conquest of lands around the Eastern Mediterranean spread Greco-Roman culture, expanded trade, changed the character of the Roman army, and created great wealth.
Julius Caesar led Rome in the conquest of Gaul (modern day France) and the British Isles (modern day Great Britain). Civil war between Caesar and the Senate made Julius Caesar dictator for life.
Causes for the decline of the Roman Republic
Spread of slavery in the agricultural system
Migration of small farmers into cities and unemployment
Civil war over the power of Julius Caesar
Devaluation of Roman currency inflation
Augustus Caesar became the first emperor of Rome after he defeated Mark Anthony.
Reasons for the rise of Imperial Rome
Civil war, giving rise to Augustus Caesar
Failure to provide for the succession of emperors
Both Caesars enlarged the Roman Empire and used the army as a basis for power.
Economic life in Rome remained prosperous even though the emphasis of trade shifted to the Mediterranean basin. Inflation resulting from military conquests and defense continued to plague the economy.
Social life was disturbed by civil wars.
Economic Impact of the Roman Empire
Established uniform system of money, enhancing trade
Guaranteed safe travels and trade on Roman roads
Promoted prosperity and stability
Returned stability to social classes
Increased emphasis on the family
Created a civil service
Developed a uniform rule of law
The uniform applications of law provided a foundation for law in nations that developed in Western Europe.
Jesus as Son of God
Life after death
Church recognition of all that believe
All people equal before God
Christianity established by
Monotheism was in conflict with polytheism
Persistence of early Christian
le to persecution (Nero)
Constantine converted to Christianity and ended persecution
Christianity become the official religion of the Roman Empire
God’s covenant with the Hebrews as the Chosen People
Ten Commandments regarded as the moral and religious laws of conduct
Important people of Judaism
Contributions of Judaism to modern Western civilization
All people equal before the law
Organization of the Roman Catholic Church
Bishop of Rome (Pope) was leader of the church
Bishops directed the church in religious districts
Priests served the church in the parish
As civil authority declined in the Roman Empire, the church sustained public life through its moral authority. Gradually, people gave their first loyalty to the church rather than to Rome.
Rome adopted and extended Greek achievements in religion, philosophy, architecture, arts, and science.
Contributions of Rome
Art/Architecture: Pantheon, Coliseum, and Forum
Technology: roads, aqueducts
Language: Latin, Romance languages
Literature: Virgil’s Aeneid
Religion: Roman mythology
Law: Twelve Tables, “innocent until proven guilty”
Roman architecture has been reproduced in Western building. Roman mythology has provided imagery in Western art and literature.
Causes for the decline of the Roman Empire
Economy: the cost of defense and devaluation of Roman coin
Military: changes in army membership and discipline
Moral decay: people’s loss of faith in Rome and the family
Political problems: imperial succession and civil conflict
Invasion: barbarian attacks
Diocletian divided the Empire into the eastern and western regions.
Constantine sought to reform the Empire, building a great capital at Byzantium and renaming it Constantinople.
Rome ceased to have a Roman emperor in 476 A.D.
Leadership in the Roman Empire under Diocletian and Constantine contributed to the strength of Constantinople while it weakened Rome.
Advantages of the imperial capital at Constantinople over Rome
Proximity to trade with the Near and Far East (Silk Road)
Stronger military in the East
Constantinople easier to defend from external enemies
Constantinople heavily fortified
Eastern empire more prosperous (Byzantine empire)
Important Byzantine leaders:
1. Justinian: directed the codification of Roman law that serves most European countries today (the code of Justinian); tried to expand the Empire through warfare
2. The Code of Justinian provided justice for diverse peoples governed by the Empire
3. Justinian’s Code became the basis for European law codes
4. Stoicism and Epicureanism were adopted from Greek and Roman philosophies
5. Greek language divided Byzantium from the Latin-speaking peoples of the West.
6. Constantinople became the center of Christian orthodoxy in competition with the church of Rome.
7. The growth of differences
8. Patriarch of Constantinople refused to accept the primacy of the Pope in Rome.
9. Icons were opposed in Byzantium while supported in Rome.
10. Celibacy of priests was required in Rome but not in Byzantium
11. Roman Catholic services were conducted in Latin; Greek was used in Constantinople.
12. Icons represented the holiness of the subject
13. Mosaics, adopted from the Muslim world, were used to decorate public and religious structures.
14. Domed structures were built on rectangular walls; Hagia (Saint) Sophia in Istanbul is an example. The Hagia Sophia; a Christian church, is now an Islamic mosque.
Saint Cyril converted the Slavic people to Christianity
Saint Cyril adapted the Greek alphabet (Cyrillic alphabet) to create a written Slavic language that is still in use in Russia, Bulgaria, and parts of eastern Europe.
Conversion of the Slavs and Russians brought these people into contact with Byzantine culture, visible in Russian architecture.
Nomadic life of Bedouin peoples in Saudi Arabia (Arabian Peninsula)
Religious belief - Islam
Monotheistic faith - belief in one god
Acceptance of earlier prophets and revelations
Qu’ran (Koran) as God’s word to Mohammed
Muhammad, the last prophet
All people equal before God
Religious practices (The five Pillars of Faith)
Creed- there is one God
Alms- giving money to the poor (2.5%)
Daily prayer 5 times a day facing Mecca or Mekkah
Pilgrimage to Mecca
Among Muslim (Islam) religious practices was religious tolerance for Christians (Christianity) and Jews (Judaism).
Great capitals were built in Mesopotamia, in Damascus, and in Baghdad. The Muslim Empire preserved and extended ancient Greek learning making contributions in mathematics, science, banking, and literature
Sects or divisions within Islam:
Shiite less than 10%
Sunni about 89%
Mystic sect - Sufis
Jewish (Judaism) beliefs Christian (Christianity) beliefs Islamic beliefs
one God one God one God
Jesus is a person Jesus is the son of God Jesus is a prophet
Sacred text Sacred text Sacred
Torah, Talmud Old and New Testaments Qu'ran (Koran)
and Hebrew Bible
Salvation through just Salvation by following teachings Salvation by following
and moral life of Jesus Five Pillars and living
a just life
Moral code of behavior Moral code of behavior Moral code of
Sunni and Shiite division
Battle of Tours
Division of Muslim Empire into caliphates (10th century)
Muslim loss of Spain
Increased trade throughout the Mediterranean
Medieval Era (Middle ages) 500 to 1000 A.D.
Barbarian invasions shattered Roman protection over the Empire.
Feudal relationships defined land ownership and political responsibilities. Protection (military) was defined in lord/vassal relationships.
In the latter years of the Roman Empire, the government bound serfs to the landowners-the origin of the manorial system. The manorial system provided a stable, self-sustaining economy in the Middle Ages.
Society in the Middle Ages was stabilized with class and roles defined by lord/vassal agreements. Class structure consisted of inherited nobility (king, vassal, and lesser lord), Knights, clergy, and serfs or peasants.
Develop the feudal society diagram below:
Nobility provided protection and justice-serfs provided labor to feed the nobility and themselves.
The Church held manor lands with church officials serving as vassals.
Frankish kings expanded their territory with military power. Their alliance with the church reestablished Roman culture in Western Europe providing the foundation for Western civilization.
Charlemagne emphasized learning and Christian doctrine; he is responsible for reviving Roman culture.
Papal (the pope of the Roman Catholic Christian Church) anointment of Charlemagne as Holy roman Emperor established the power of the church in political life.
As the power of the Roman Catholic Christian Church grew, Europeans held their first loyalty to the church - forming Christendom.
What is feudalism? _________________ What is a fief? __________________
The Treaty of Verdun divided Charlemagne’s empire into three parts - one kingdom was given to each of his three grandson’s. Name the grand children and the part of the empire each received ____________________________
Protection and land ownership were dependent upon the authority of local nobles. Manors with castles provided protection from invaders.
Vikings and Magyars settled in Europe. The Angles and Saxons became established in England.
The foundation of early medieval society consisted of the classical heritage of Rome, Christian beliefs, and the customs of Germanic tribes. There was renaissance of Roman culture under Charlemagne. Loyalty to the church superseded loyalty to the government.
Monk’s monasteries preserved Greco-Roman culture in libraries, reproducing secular manuscripts - St. Benedict, Dominican, and Franciscan.
Missionaries carried the Latin alphabet and the Christian faith to German tribes.
The pope or papacy anointed Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor in 800 A.D.
Parish priests administered the sacraments essential for salvation. Hope was with the Roman Catholic Christian Church.
Classical era -focus is on India, China, Japan, Africa, and the Americas
Classical India existed in a geographical area along and between the Indus and Ganges River valleys. The Indo-Aryan people invaded the area about 1500 B.C., creating a rigidly structured society (caste system) blended with native Hinduism, an Indian religion.
Buddhism, another Indian religion, became the prominent faith during the Mauryan dynasty. Asoka sent missionaries to spread the faith throughout Asia.
1. Aryans developed the caste system to ensure their dominance of Indian society. The caste system was embedded in Hindu religious laws.
2. The caste system was hereditary, creating a stable social, political, and economic structure.
3. Gautama criticized the Hindu caste system and founded Buddhism. His teachings included the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. Asoka dispatched missionaries, spreading the teachings of Buddha throughout Asia.
Who is Asoka? __________________ Who is Siddhartha Gautama?________________
The Guptas established the Golden Age of Classical Indian culture contributing mathematical knowledge (the numeral system used in the west and the concept of zero), new textiles, and literature that influenced Southeast Asia.
The Moslem Turks conquered India and brought Islam to the Indian subcontinent.
Caste system in religious law
Polytheistic (one god with many forms)
Reincarnation - rebirth
karma - future based on present behavior
Physical barriers to invasion included the Himalayas, Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, and deserts of Southwest Asia.
Khyber Pass was the invasion route through mountains to the West. Find the Khyber Pass on a Map of India.
Arabian Sea provided sea routes for trade with Rome and the Muslim world.
Chinese culture began around 1500 B.C. or bce Great cultural advances occurred under two dynasties -the Zhou (joh) and Tang. Chinese contributions to civilization are numerous, but Confucianism and Taoism are among the most noted Religious philosophies. The Great Wall of China represents an architectural achievement that astounds the world.
Classical China was centered on the Hwang River, which was isolated from the Rest of the world by deserts to the west and north and Himalayan mountains to the west and south. Invaders entered China from the North Manchurian Plain, leading to the building of the Great Wall of China for protection.
1. Humans are good, not bad
2. Respect for ones elders
3. Code of politeness still used in Chinese society today
4. Emphasis on education
5. Ancestor worship
Laozi/Taoism or Daoism
2. Simple life and inner peace
3. Yin/Yang representing opposites, e.g. good and evil
4. Harmony with nature
Chinese rulers were considered divine, but they served under a mandate of heaven only as long as their rule was just.
Under the Tang dynasty, China developed printing and encouraged literature influencing cultural development in Korea and Japan.
The Tang period expanded the system of education and created civil service examinations for government officials.
The Silk Road connected China to the Western world (Rome).
Migratory invaders raided Chinese settlements from the North. The Great Wall was built as a line of defense against invasions.
Japanese cultural development was influenced both by proximity to China and isolation from the Asian mainland.
Japan consists of four main islands separated from Asia by the Sea of Japan. While Japan benefited from cultural exchanges with the mainland, the people developed a unique Japanese culture.
1. Japanese Shintoism is an ethnic religion unique to Japan. Shinto venerates spirits in nature and ancestors. Shinto became the state religion, venerating the emperor.
2. Buddhism and Confucianism were introduced to Japan from China along with Chinese culture: art, architecture, and writing. Zen Buddhism and Shinto continue to coexist in Japan.
3. Confucianism led to Japanese respect for a just, central government.
The insular character of Japanese geography provided defense from invaders.
African civilizations developed at Kush in East Africa and Ghana in West Africa.
Kush and Ghana concentrated on trade with different partners.
1. African civilizations developed at Kush in East Africa and Ghana in West Africa.
2. Both economies focused on trade throughout Africa and the Middle East.
3. Kush traded primarily with Egypt.
4. Ghana’s economy was based on the exchange of gold for salt.
The Mayans and the Aztecs created complex civilizations, which emerged in Central America and Mexico.
Located in Mexico and Central America
Group of city-states ruled by a king
Economy based in agriculture and trade
located in central Mexico
Ruled by an emperor
Economy based on agriculture
Polytheistic religion, based on warfare
Your signature stating that you read through the review sheet and completed the simple activities. _______________________________
You must also get your parent or guardian’s signature stating that you did complete this review packet._____________________________
Return by Tuesday, May 21, 2002 before the S.O.L. exam to receive the points!